Here is a list of important village industries: 1. Khadi Cloth 2. Gur and Khandsari 3. Palm Gur Industry 4. Processing of Cereals and Pulses Industry 5. Village Oil Industry 6. Non-Edible Oil and Soap 7. Hand-Made Paper 8. Village Tanning Industry 9. Bee Keeping 10. Village Pottery 11. Sericulture 12. Coir Industry 13. Handicrafts 14. Food Processing Industry.
Promotion and encouragement of co-operative efforts for the development of khadi and other village industries has been an important function of the khadi and village industries commission.
1. Khadi Cloth:
Khadi cloth production is very important for providing employment to people living in rural areas as well as semi urban areas at very low investment per job. The production of khadi cloth increased from 105 million square metres in 1995-96 to 125 million square metres in 1996-97. It is estimated that Khadi cloth production will be about 230 million square metres in terminal year of the Ninth Plan. The production of all varieties of Khadi cloth (including woollen and silk cloth was only 54 million square metres in 1960-61. Thus, there has been considerable growth in Khadi cloth production.
2. Gur and Khandsari:
This industry has been organised by the Commission. The production of gur and khandsari increased from 123.0 thousand tonnes in 1960-61 to 248.8 thousand tonnes in 1965-66 but declined to 204.3 thousand tonnes in 1968-69. It was about 240.0 thousand tonnes in 1973-74.
The Commission has helped the industry by introducing and supplying improved implements (bullock-driven or power-driven crushers centrifugal and replacement of traditional kolhus by improved ones), giving an extraction of 65 to 68 per cent ; by introducing cheap juice clarificants and improvement of the quality of product ; by introducing sulphitation process which has increased the recovery of khand to about 75 per cent; by organising gur production units ; by training cane growers in improved techniques of gur production ; and by constructing godowns for storing sugarcane and gur. It provides seasonal employment to about 30 lakh people.
3. Palm Gur Industry:
There are about 80 m. palm trees in the country, of which 80 per cent are palmayra. But of this number, only about 50 m. are exploited. The industry gives direct employment to about 20 lakh people and indirect employment to about 6 lakh people for 200 days in a year. The Commission covers about 3 ½ lakh tappers organised in about 3,300 co-operatives covering some 7,000 villages.
The value of palm gur was Rs. 69.18 million in 1964-65 and Rs. 65.22 m. in 1968-69 and about Rs. 70 in 1973-74. The production amounted to 78.2 thousand tonnes in 1960-61 and 94.1 thousand tonnes in 1965-66. It was a little over 95 thousand tonnes in 1973-74.
4. Processing of Cereals and Pulses Industry:
The development programme stated by the Commission consists of the manufacture and supply of improved implements, establishment of marketing depots, construction of godowns for storage of rice, paddy and implements; and provision of training to the artisans, at Wanakhori (Gujarat). Improved implements like dhenkis, atta chakies, ball-bearing sets and winnowing fans are distributed.
5. Village Oil Industry:
A number of oilseeds are crushed both for edible and non-edible purposes. The production of edible oil was 59.6 thousand tonnes in 1960-61; it declined to 50.1 thousand tonnes in 1965-66 and 38.4 thousand tonnes in 1968-69, but was about 50 thousand tonnes in 1973-74.
Oil processing and crushing industry provides full time employment to about 30,000 people and part-time employment to about 15,000 people throughout 5,000 co-operatives which run about 45,000 ghanis.
The development programme of the Commission consists of the schemes of financial help to the oilmen for purchase of oilseed ; supply of improved ghanis and help in the sale of oil through registered selling agencies ; and the organisation of co-operative societies.
6. Non-Edible Oil and Soap:
Important non-edible oilseeds available in the country are neem, mahua, karanja, pilu, pisa, maroti, ratanjoti, Kamla, and Kokum etc. This industry provides seasonal employment to about 95,000 people.
The Commission’s programme emphasised on the preservation and conservation of non-edible oilseeds for strengthening the raw materials required by the vegetable oil-based industries.
7. Hand-Made Paper:
This type of paper is being made by city-wastes like rags, clothes, paper and rural-wastes like plant stalks, paddy straw and bagasses. The production of handmade paper increased from 1,227 tonnes in 1960-61 to 1,966 tonnes in 1965-66 and to 2,888 tonnes in 1968-69 and to about 3,000 tonnes in 1973-74. It provides employment to about 4,000 people.
With the improvements in techniques of rag cutting, pulp beating, calendering and glazing; and the use of mechanically driven beaters, new types of paper such as stencil, tissue decorative, packing and better varieties of paper are being produced.
8. Village Tanning Industry:
There are about 900 flaying centres and over 700 tanneries. These produce leather goods and tan hides and skins. The production of leather goods was in terms of values, Rs. 0.36 crores in 1960-61. It increased to Rs. 2.69 crores in 1965-66 to 4.65 crores in 1968-69; and to over Rs. 5.00 crores in 1973-74.
9. Bee Keeping:
This industry is mostly developed in South India. The Commission covers about 17,000 villages where there are over 250,000 bee colonies. The number of bee keepers is about 75,000. The production of honey rose from 562,000 kgs. in 1962-63 to 15,00,000 kgs. in 1968-69.
10. Village Pottery:
The industry gives employment to about 5 lakh families of potters for nearly 8 months in a year. The annual value of potteries has been estimated at more than a crores of rupees.
The Commission covers about 30,000 potters. The development programmes consist of training and research, financial assistance, service facilities, provision of common workshed, brick-kilns and training-cum-production centres.
This industry is developed mostly in Karnataka state, which produces about 50 per cent of the total production followed by West Bengal, Assam, Kashmir, M.P. and Bihar.
The total production of the sericulture industry increased 29.0 lakh kg in 1973-74 to 48 lakh kg in 1979-80 and 67.54 lakh kg in 1984-85. The number of persons to whom sericulture provided part-time employment rose from 12 lakh persons in 1973-74 to 16 lakh persons in 1979-80 and 20 lakh persons in 1984-85. The value of export from sericulture is also increasing. The value of export of silk fabrics and waste increased from Rs. 14 crores in 1973-74 to Rs. 129-crores in 1984-85.
The Central Silk Board, established in 1949, looks after the development of silk and sericulture industry. Research centres work at Berhampur, Mysore, Ranchi; and Seed Stations at Srinagar, Coonoor and Lokha.
12. Coir Industry:
The coir industry is one of the traditional industries in India. The coir industry is concentrated mainly in southern states namely Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It is primarily located in the areas where there is concentration of coconut cultivation and availability of coconut husks. The industry is basically export oriented. The export of coir product in 2001-02 is estimated at Rs. 400 crores. Coir industry employs more than five lakh persons and is manufacturing finished products such as mats, mattings, carpets, rags etc.
Coir board looks after the development and diversification of coir industry. The Coir Board was set up as an autonomous statutory body under the provision of coir industry act of 1953. The National Coir Training and design centre, Kalavoor and the central institute of Coir Technology, Bangalore are engaged in scientific research and technology development. The main problem being faced by the coir industry are low wages and other facilities of social welfare. The coir industry is also facing stiff competition in the export market particularly from Sri Lanka. Thus there is urgent need to modernise the industry.
These, including precious, semi-precious and synthetic stones, jewellery, carpets, druggets and other art crafts such as art metalware and hand printed textiles, engage about 14 lakh persons in about 4 lakh handicraft establishment. Value of their production increased from Rs. 10.65 crores in 1973-74 to Rs. 20.50 crores in 1979-80 and Rs. 35.00 crores in 1984-85. The industry provided employment to 15 lakh persons in 1973-74 and 27.40 lakh persons in 1984-85. Value of export from handicraft industry increased from Rs. 19.50 crores in 1973-74 to Rs. 1700.0 crores in 1984-85.
The All-India Handicrafts Board, set up in 1962, looks after the improvement in production and marketing of handicrafts. It also provides assistance in designing through its 5 regional offices and provides training facilities through 6 pilot centres.
14. Food Processing Industry:
India is amongst the top ranking nations in terms of total production of various raw materials required for development of the food processing industry. India has emerged as the largest producer of milk, the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables the largest producer of spices, ground nut and rape seed and the fourth largest producer of wheat. Thus, India has a tremendous potential for development of food processing industry. Despite all these advantages India is much below in the world map in terms of Food Processing.
Several countries like Brazil, Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia are much advanced in food processing activities. Government of India has taken various initiatives for the promotion of food processing industries. In this context a separate ministry for Food Processing has been set up. Promotional bodies like Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA), Agricultural and Processed Foods Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) and National Horticulture Board has been established to promote the Food Processing business.
The policies adopted to promote the processing activities has created a favourable environment for food processing industry. It is estimated that food processing industry contributes about 18 per cent to the industrial gross domestic product. It employs about 115 million persons. The food processing industry however is primarily functioning in the informal and unorganised sector.
The food processing industry sector has attracted a lot of foreign investment. Since the deregulation of the food industry under the new industrial policy of 1991, there has been spurt in various sub-sectors of the food processing industry. The food processing industry includes roller flour milling, rice processing, cereal based products, maize processing and pasta products. The bakery sector is the largest among the processed foods industry.
The development programmes for the food processing industry includes manufacture and supply of improved implements, establishment of marketing depots, construction of godowns. Provision of training is also important for the development of the sector. Improved implements for the artisans are also being distributed. High cost past harvest losses, inadequate transportation facilities are also creating problem for the industry. There is surplus capacity available in the food processing industry.