Compilation of commonly asked questions and answers on gardening.
Q.1. What are important features of a formal garden?
Ans. i. First plan is made on paper and then land is selected accordingly.
ii. Land is leveled.
iii. Symmetrical design.
iv. Geometrical: Square, rectangular, circular beds and borders.
v. Roads and paths cut at right angle.
vi. Balance is symmetrical as same feature replicated on both sides of central axis.
vii. Hedges, edges and topiary are trimmed.
viii. Trees can be selected as individual feature.
ix. Mughal, Persian, Italian, French, Chinese and American gardens.
Q.2. What are important features of informal gardens?
Ans. i. Plan is forced to fit the land.
ii. Main aim is to capture natural scenery.
iii. Land is not leveled.
iv. Asymmetrical design.
v. Non-geometrical beds and borders.
vi. Untrimmed hedges, edges and topiary.
vii. Individual plants are not selected as feature.
viii. Japanese, Chinese, English gardens.
Q.3. How did Aryans use flowers?
Ans. For religious and social functions.
Q.4. Which trees were considered as symbol of fertility during Harappan period?
Ans. Ficus religiosa (Peepal) and Ficus benghalensis (Banyan tree).
Q.5. When did Aryans reach India?
Ans. 1600 BC.
Q.6. Which route the Aryans followed to reach India?
Ans. Iran and Afghanistan.
Q.7. The country during Aryan’s period was known as…………
Q.8. The meaning of Aryavarta is……..
Ans. The country of lotus.
Q.9. Which four Vedas the Aryans brought with them?
Ans. Rig, Artharva, Yazur and Sam Vedas.
Q.10. Which were common names of the kids of Aryans given after flowers?
Ans. Champa, Rukmani, Pankaj, Juhi, Moti, Bela, Chameli and Madhvi.
Q.11. Lord Vishnu and Goddess Lakshmi are associated with which flower?
Q.12. Lord Krishna is associated with which flower?
Ans. Neolambrackia cadamba (syn. Anthocephalus cadamba) (Kadamba).
Q.13. Lord Shiva is associated with which flower?
Ans. Bombax ceiba (Semul).
Q.14. Goddess Saraswati is associated with which flower?
Ans. Bauhinia variegate (Kachnar).
Q.15. The life of Lord Budha is associated with which trees?
Ans. Saraca indica (Asoka), Shorea robusta (Sal) and Butea monosperma (Flame of the forest).
Q.16. Symbolically which flowering tree represented the enlightenment of Lord Budha?
Ans. Ficus religiosa.
Q.17. The birth of Lord Budha took under which tree?
Ans. Saraca indica (Asoka) in 563 BC.
Q.18. Which emperor adopted for first time the arboriculture in his state policies?
Ans. Asoka (264-227 BC).
Q.19. Who planted the sapling of Ficus religiosa in Anuradhapur in Srilanka?
Ans. Mahenda s/o Emperor Asoka.
Q.20. The art of gardening developed during the Buddhist period reached which countries?
Ans. Thailand, Korea, China and Japan.
Q.21. During exile Sita was fascinated with which flowering tree?
Ans. Saraca indica (Asoka).
Q.22. The sculptures of the Kushan period were found at which place?
Ans. Mathura (78-200 AD).
Q.23. Which trees were associated with sculptures of Kushan period?
Ans. Saraca indica, Neolambrackia cadamba and Ixora parvifiora.
Q.24. During which ruler’s period golden age of Hindus was considered?
Ans. Kanishka and Gupta (100-600 AD).
Q.25. Mrichchakatikam mentioned about various gardens and flowers was written by whom?
Ans. Sudraka (100 BC).
Q.26. Poet Asvaghosha mentioned about which trees in his epic Sundra nanda?
Ans. Mesua ferrea, Neolambrackia cadamba and Lotus.
Q.27. Poet Kalidasa in his epic Meghduta mentioned about the women of Alkapuri who decorated hairs with the flowers of which plant?
Ans. Neolambrackia cadamba
Q.28. Poet Kalidasa mentioned of which plant in the play Shakuntala?
Ans. Hiptage benghalensis (Madhavi).
Q.29. Vatsayana (300-400 AD) in his book Kamasutra described which gardens?
Ans. i. Paramodyana—used as private garden by the king and queen.
ii. Udyana—king passed his leisure time by enjoying the dance and playing chess.
iii. Vrikshavatika—garden for ministers and courtiers.
iv. Nandanvana—garden devoted to Lord Indra.
Q.30. How Vatsayana gave the virtues of a wife?
Ans. She must be involved in the gardening, creating arbours and seats in the garden in addition to household working.
Q.31. How Hiuen Tsang a Chinese pilgrim described the Hindus?
Ans. Every morning a Hindu require flowers for worshiping and decorating hairs.
Q.32. Poet Bana Bhatta mentioned about flowering plants in which of his book?
Ans. Harsh Charita.
Q.33. How old are the evidences of Chinese garden?
Ans. 5000 years.
Q.34. Which of the seven wonders is related to gardening?
Ans. Hanging gardens of Babylon.
Q.35. Which garden is now considered as genesis of gardening?
Ans. Garden of Eden (U.K.).
Q.36. Feroz Tughlaq (1351-1388 AD) developed how many gardens around Delhi?
Q.37. Babur developed first garden at which place after defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in 1526 AD
Q.38. Which is important garden developed by Babur in India?
Ans. Rambagh garden at Agra.
Q.39. Bagh-i-wafa a treatise mentioning description of gardening in India is written by whom?
Q.40. What are important plants mentioned in Babur Nama?
Ans. Oleander, hibiscus, white jasmine and keora (screw pine).
Q.41. Which two types of gardens were common during Mughal period?
Ans. Pleasure garden and Tomb garden.
Q.42. Who planted avenue trees along grand trunk road from Kolkata to Lahore?
Ans. Sher Shah Suri (1540-1544 AD).
Q.43. Akbar (1556-1605 AD) made a first garden at which place?
Ans. Fatehpur Sikri.
Q.44. Who was first Mughal to enter Kashmir?
Q.45. Which is important garden developed by Akbar in Kashmir?
Ans. Nasim Bagh near Dal Lake.
Q.46. Which are famous gardens developed by Jahangir (1605-1627 AD)?
Ans. Gardens at Shalimar, Achhabal, Verinag in Kashmir, tomb garden Itimad-ud-Daulah in Agra and Dilkusha garden in Lahore.
Q.47. Shahjahan (1627-1658 AD) developed which gardens?
Ans. Red Fort of New Delhi, Taj Mahal of Agra, Chasma Shahi in Kashmir and Shalimar in Lahore.
Q.48. Who discovered otto while taking bath?
Ans. Noorjahan w/o Shahjahan.
Q.49. Nawabs of Oudh made gardens at which place?
Q.50. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah (1847-1856 AD) made a garden at which place?
Ans. NBRI Lucknow.
Q.51. Aurangjeb made a garden at which place?
Q.52. Mughal garden of Pinjore near Chandigarh was made by whom?
Ans. Fadai Khan a general of Aurangjeb.
Q.53. What are important plants introduced during Mughal period?
Ans. Chenar, weepilng willow, rose, nargis, daffodil, lilies, tulip, iris, tuberose, carnation and few annuals.
Q.54. Who made Lal bagh garden at Bangalore?
Ans. Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan in 1760.
Q.55. Who made Baradari garden of Patiala?
Ans. Maharaja Bhupinder Singh and his son Yadvender Singh of Patiala.
Q.56. When origin of Japanese gardening took place?
Ans. Era of Empress Suiko (592-628 AD).
Q.57. At what time the Chinese influenced the gardening in Japan?
Ans. Era of Nara (646-794 AD).
Q.58. At what time the Korean influenced the gardening in Japan?
Ans. Era of Heian (794-1185 AD).
Q.59. During which period flat and hill gardens developed in Japan?
Ans. Era of Muromachi (1392-1573 AD).
Q.60. During which period lakes and large paths were included in the Japanese gardens?
Ans. Edo period (1603-1867 AD).
Q.61. Ryoanji Temple garden in Japan was constructed in which period?
Ans. Kamakura period (1186-1399 AD).
Q.62. During which period Budhas temples were made in Japan?
Ans. Asuka period (538-794 AD).
Q.63. Which is the first botanical garden developed on this globe?
Ans. Padua near Venice in Italy in 1543.
Q.64. What are other oldest botanical gardens developed in the world?
Ans. Oxford (1621), Edwinburgh (1670), Cambridge (1762), Kew (1759) and Leyden in Holland (1840).
Q.65. Moorish gardens are developed in which country?
Q.66. Who was famous French Garden designer?
Ans. Le Notre.
Q.67. Le Notre created which of the famous French gardens?
Ans. Gardens of Versailles.
Q.68. What are different botanical gardens developed by Britishers in India?
Ans. i. Horticultural Research Institute, Saharanpur in 1750,
ii. Indian botanic garden Sibpore, Kolkata in 1787,
iii. Govt. Botanical garden Ootacamund (1848),
iv. Agri-horticultural Society garden Kolkatain in 1872,
v. Sim’s Park Conoor, Tamil Nadu (1874) by J D Sim,
vi. Llyoid botanical garden Darjeeling in 1878,
vii. Botanical garden Coimbatore now campus of TNAU in 1908,
viii. Byrant Park, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu in 1909,
ix. Rashtrapati Bhavan Garden, New Delhi in 1929 and designed by Sir Edwin Lutyen on the advice of Lady Hardinge,
x. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun in 1934.
Q.69. What are other gardens developed during British period in India?
Ans. i. Mandhor garden at Jodhpur by Raja Abhai Singh during 1724-1749,
ii. Sayaji park Baroda by Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1879,
iii. NBRI Lucknow.
Q.70. What are important gardens developed after independence in India?
Ans. i. Brindavan garden at Mysore,
ii. Budha Jayanti Park at New Delhi,
iii. Roshnara Park at New Delhi,
iv. Rose garden at Chandigarh and Ludhiana, and
v. Rock garden at Chandigarh developed by Padamabhushan Shri Nek Chand Saini.
Q.71. Who was invited as expert to develop Japanese type gardens in India during 1960-61 by Govt., of India?
Ans. Professor K Mori.
Q.72. What are important Japanese gardens developed in India?
Ans. Roshnara and Budha Jayanti park at New Delhi.
Q.73. What are main features of Spanish gardens?
Ans. i. Water in basins, pools, fountains and channels.
ii. Fruit and ornamental trees.
iii. Fragrant flowers.
Q.74. What are main features of Italian gardens?
Ans. i. Came into existence at the time of Renaissance.
ii. Resemble Mughai or Persian gardens.
iii. Fountains, sculptures, water canals, box or yew hedges, topiary, arbour, trellis and architecturally beautiful buildings.
iv. Plants of ilex and roses.
Q.75. What are the main features of French gardens?
Ans. i. Formal gardens in perfection.
ii. Unexampled scale of mass and sweep of designs.
Q.76. What are main features of Persian gardens?
Ans. i. Based on idea of heaven
ii. Strictly formal and symmetrical
iii. Beautiful architectural work
iv. Laid out after cutting terraces
v. Water flowing canals, and
vi. Planted cypress as symbol of eternity.
Q.77. What are main features of Mughal gardens?
Ans. i. Site near hill slope with perennial rivulet
ii. Gardens enclosed with walls and fitted with tall gates
iii. Garden has at least seven, eight or twelve terraces symbolizing 7 planets, 8 paradise or 12 zodiac with entrance at the lowest terrace
iv. Running water in canals
v. Terminal building
vi. Baradari with twelve doors three in every direction, and
vii. Symbolism and plant material.
Q.78. What are three important factors which made English gardens so beautiful?
Ans. i. Typical grassland climate in England
ii. Gardening is hobby of rich peoples, and
iii. Englishmen were very fond of flowers.
Q.79. How the gardening of England is described?
Ans. i. Search for sustenance (1066-1500 AD)
ii. Elizabethan period (1500-1700 AD), and
iii. Return to nature (1700 AD onwards).
Q.80. What were main features of gardens during ‘Search for Sustenance’?
Ans. i. Gardens attached with monasteries and planted with fruit trees and vegetables for food as utilitarian gardens.
ii. Roses, carnation, violets, lily, hollyhock were planted.
iii. Formal gardens and unnatural.
Q.81. What were main features of English gardens during ‘Elizabethan period’?
Ans. i. Hampton court was built by C Wolsey.
ii. Symmetrical plan with walks planted with fruit trees.
iii. Queen Elizabeth introduced many exotic plants during (1558-1603).
iv. Utility gardens were converted to liaison gardens.
v. Peak of symmetry in gardens with influence of Le Notre.
vi. Gardens were monotonous and dull looking.
vii. Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) gave inspiration to many to develop informal gardens through landscape paintings.
Q.82. What were main features of English gardens during ‘Return to Nature’?
Ans. i. Henry Hoare in 1720 started changing landscape gardens.
ii. English gardens were redefined by W. Kent, L Brown and H Repton from picturesque to natural style.
iii. William Robinson invented herbaceous border and gave the concept of wild gardening.
iv. Herbaceous border term first used by G Jekyell.
Q.83. What are three essential features of all types of modern English gardens?
Ans. i. Lawn
ii. Herbaceous border, and
Q.84. When Royal Horticultural Society established?
Q.85. Where Royal Botanical garden is situated?
Ans. Kew in England in 1757.
Q.86. When did the show of ornamental plants started at the ground of Royal Hospital Chelsea?
Q.87. Who gave the concept of Cottage gardens?
Ans. G. Jekyell.
Q.88. At what time the important English gardens are in their peak ornamental value?
Ans. i. April- Kew, Seville, Wisley.
ii. May- Bodnant, Ness, Wood bridge.
iii. June- Chats worth, Harlowcar, York gate.
iv. September- Stour head, Wilton, Furry, Compton acres.
v. October- Westonbirt, west bury, Hideote and Kift’s gate.
Q.89. What are different types of Japanese gardens?
Ans. i. Hill gardens
ii. Flat gardens
iii. Tea gardens
iv. Passage gardens
v. Sand gardens, and
vi. Fancy gardens.
Q.90. What are important features of Japanese gardens?
Ans. i. Ornamental water: Ponds, streams, waterfalls, fountains, wells, water basins.
iv. Stone lanterns
vii. Fences and gates, and
Q.91. What are important plants grown in Japanese gardens?
Ans. i. Evergreen- Abies, Cryptomeria, Podocarpus, Juniperus, Magnolia, Michelia
ii. Deciduos- Acer, Populus, Morus, Salix, Prunus
iii. Shrubs- Aucuba, Azalea, Gardenia, Nandina, Camellia, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Rosa
iii. Climbers- Clematis, Lonicera, Trachelospermum, Wisteria
iv. Annuals- Aster, Chrysanthemum, Carnation
v. Herbaceous perennials, and
vi. Bulbous plants.
Q.92. For what Japan is famous historically?
Ans. i. Japanese gardens
ii. Tea ceremony
iv. Bonsai, and
v. Industrial goods.
Q.93. What is important teaching of Japanese gardens?
Ans. ‘Unless a garden has a piece of air, it is not worth place for visiting and garden should be a place where mind finds rest and relaxation’.
Q.94. What are famous botanical gardens of USA?
Ans. i. Arnold arboretum, Boston
ii. Morton arboretum, Chicago
iii. Fairchild tropical garden, Coconut glove Florida
iv. Brooklyn botanical garden, New York
v. Longwood gardens, Kenneth square, Pennsylvania
vi. Botanical garden, San Francisco, California
vii. Hunginton botanical garden, San Marino, California
viii. Strybing arboretum, San Francisco, California, and
ix. Missouri botanical gardens, St. Louis.
Q.95. What are famous botanical gardens of England?
Ans. i. Cambridge university garden
ii. Royal botanic garden, Kew.
Q.96. What are famous gardens of Japan?
Ans. i. Botanical garden, Kyoto
ii. Botanical garden, Mikko
iii. Botanical garden, Sapparo, and
iv. Garden of Osaka.
Q.97. Which are the famous rose gardens in the world?
Ans. i. Abhney Park Cemetery and Arboretum developed by Loddigues nursery in England housed about 1000 cultivars of roses in 1840.
ii. The garden of rose at St. Albans, the head quarter of the Royal National Rose Society in England
iii. Queen Mary’s Rose garden, Regent’s park, London.
iv. Reservoir of roses at Bagatelle, the Bois de Boulogne, Paris, France.
v. Descanso garden in Los Angles.
vi. Tyler Municipal garden in Texas.
vii. Zakir Hussain Rose garden, Chandigarh.
viii. National Rose garden, Chankyapuri, New Delhi.