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Essay on the Tillage of Soil
- Essay on the Meaning of Tillage
- Essay on the Objectives of Tillage
- Essay on the Modern Concepts of Tillage
- Essay on Factors Influencing Tilth
- Essay on the Soil Consistence for Tillage
- Essay on the Mechanics of Tillage
- Essay on the Types of Tillage
- Essay on the Systems of Tillage
- Essay on the Implements Required for Tillage
Essay # 1. Meaning of Tillage:
Cultivation involves management of physical environment to produce as favourable habitat as possible for successful crop production. That part of the physical environment most amenable to manage is soil, the cultivation of which comprise a range of processes, including tillage.
The word tillage is derived from the Anglo-Saxon words tilicin, and teolian, meaning to plough and prepare soil for seed to sow, to cultivate and to raise crops. Manipulation of the soil with tools and implements for obtaining conditions ideal for seed germination, seedling establishment and growth of crops is called tillage.
Tillage is agricultural preparation of the soil by ploughing, ripping or turning it. It is a sort of soil disturbance. Soil disturbance causes depletion of soil carbon and changes the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil disturbance by tillage disturbs the soil ecosystem and hinders the development of microorganisms.
Tilling was first performed via human labor, sometimes involving slaves. Hoofed animals could also be used to till soil via trampling. The wooden plough and mould board plough were then invented. They could be pulled by mule, ox, elephant, water buffalo or similar sturdy animal. Soon after 1900, farm tractor was introduced, which eventually made modern large scale agriculture possible.
Essay # 2. Objectives of Tillage:
The objectives of tillage for crop production are:
1. Adequate soil aeration for gaseous exchange in the seed and root zone.
2. Adequate seed-soil contact to permit water flow to seed and seedling roots.
3. A non-crusted soil to permit seedling emergence.
4. A low density soil that permits root elongation and proliferation.
5. An environment that provides adequate light to the seedling (weed free environment).
6. A pest and pathogen free environment.
7. Mixing the applied manures and fertilizers with the soil.
8. Removing the hard pans, if any to increase the soil depth for water absorption.
To achieve the objectives, the soil is disturbed/opened up and turned over. The intensity and depth to which this is effected are usually dependent on site and soil type on one hand and mi the type of implements used on the other, but may also be a function of type of crop in some instances.
The aim of tillage is to produce as good a soil condition or tilth as possible for crop establishment and initial shoot and root development. The term tilth is used to describe qualitative characteristics of a loose friable (mellow) and crumby condition of the soil favourable for crop production. When the soil is brought to such a condition ideal for crop growth it is called a seedbed and is said to be in good tilth.
In other words, tilth is physical condition of soil resulting from tillage. The ideal seedbed is a soil in which porosity of the mineral solid matter provides an optimum balance between water holding and freely drained. The optimum balance appears to be the one in which capillary and non-capillary pores are in equal proportion.
Essay # 3. Modern Concepts of Tillage:
I. Conventional Tillage:
In conventional tillage, entire field is stirred up to certain depth (plough depth). It incorporates two basic methods: clean cultivation without any plant debris left on surface or mulch tillage in which some debris left on soil surface. It has both advantages and disadvantages.
1. Minimum soil compaction, which can be easily managed with subsequent operations.
2. Easier crop management practices due to clean cultivation.
3. Lack of plant debris reduces the opportunity for over wintering/over summering of pests.
1. Clean cultivation predisposes the soil for erosion.
2. It is an energy consuming costly operation.
3. Rapid decomposition of soil organic matter.
II. Conservation Tillage:
The immediate cause for introducing conservation tillage was high cost of tillage due to steep rise in oil prices. In addition, there are problems associated with conventional tillage. Repeated use of heavy machinery destroys structure, causes soil pans and leads to erosion.
Needs of planting zone (row zone) and water management zone (inter row zone) are different. In row crops, it is sufficient to provide fine tilth in the row zone for creating conditions optimal for sowing and conducive to rapid and complete germination and seedling establishment.
In the inter-row zone, secondary tillage is not done and it should be rough and cloddy where soil structure is coarse and open so that weeds may not germinate and more water infiltrates into the soil. Important object of tillage is weed control which can be done by herbicides.
The practice of inverting the top soil in order to bury manures and crop residues becomes less important object of tillage in modem field management as use of animal and green manure is rather uncommon. Crop residues can and in many cases should be left over surface as stubble mulch to protect against evaporation and erosion losses.
Research has shown that frequent tillage is rarely beneficial and often detrimental. All these reasons led to the development and practice of different methods of conservation tillage.
In conservation tillage some crop remains on soil surface after field preparation. Chief goals of this system are to reduce soil erosion and moisture conservation. It is often called residue management system, which is not clearly distinct from conservation tillage. These systems are widely practiced in USA. Common types of conservation tillage are no tillage, mulch tillage, strip tillage, minimum tillage and ridge tillage.
Different methods of conservation tillage practices are summarised below:
a. Row Zone Tillage:
After primary tillage with mould board plough, secondary tillage operations like disking and harrowing are reduced. Secondary tillage is done in row zone only.
b. Plough-Plant Tillage:
After soil is ploughed, a special planter is used and in one run over the field, the row zone is pulverised and seeds are sown.
c. Wheel Track Planting:
Ploughing is done as usual. Tractor is used for sowing and wheels of the tractor pulverise the row zone.
d. Zero Tillage:
Zero tillage is also called as no till. Zero tillage is an extreme form of minimum tillage. Primary tillage is completely avoided and secondary tillage is restricted to seedbed preparation in the row zone only.
Till planting is one method of practicing zero tillage. The machinery accomplishes four tasks in one operation: clean a narrow strip over the crop row, open the soil for seed insertion, place the seed and cover the seed properly. A wide sweep and trash bars clear a strip over the previous crop row and planter-shoe opens a narrow strip into which seeds are planted and covered.
In zero tillage, herbicide functions are extended. Before sowing, vegetation present has to be destroyed for which broad spectrum, nonselective herbicides with relatively short residual effect (Paraquat, Glyphosate etc.) are used.
e. Stubble Mulch Tillage:
Conventional method of tillage results in soil erosion. Stubble mulch tillage or stubble mulch farming a new approach was developed for keeping soil protected at all times whether by growing a crop or by crop residues left on the surface during fallow periods. It is a year round system of managing plant residue with implements that undercut residue, loosen the soil and kill weeds.
Sweeps or blades are generally used to cut the soil up to 12 to 15 cm depth in the first operation after harvest and the depth of cut reduced during subsequent operations. When unusually large amount of residues are present, a disc type implement is used for the first operation to incorporate some of the residues into the soil. This hastens decomposition, but still keeps enough residues on the soil.
Two methods are adopted for sowing crops in stubble mulch farming:
(i) Similar to zero tillage, a wide sweep and trash-bars are used to clear a strip and a narrow planter-shoe opens a narrow furrow into which seeds are placed.
(ii) A narrow chisel of 5 to 10 cm width is worked through the soil at a depth of 15 to 30 cm leaving all plant residues on the surface.
The chisel shatters tillage pans and surface crusts. Planting is done through residues with special planters.
f. Minimum Tillage:
It involves considerable soil disturbance, though to a much lesser extent than that associated with conventional tillage. Minimum tillage is aimed at reducing tillage to the minimum necessary for ensuring a good seedbed, rapid germination, a satisfactory stand and favourable growing conditions.
Tillage can be reduced in two ways:
(i) By omitting operation which do not give much benefit when compared to the cost.
(ii) By combining agricultural operations like seeding and fertiliser application.
Advantages of minimum tillage include:
1. Improved soil conditions due to decomposition of plant residues in situ.
2. Higher infiltration caused by the vegetation present on the soil and channels formed by the decomposition of dead roots.
3. Less resistance to root growth due to improved structure.
4. Less soil compaction by the reduced movement of heavy tillage vehicles and less soil erosion compared to conventional tillage.
These advantages are evident on coarse and medium textured soils and appear after two to three years of practicing minimum tillage.
Disadvantages of minimum tillage include:
1. Seed germination is lower with minimum tillage.
2. In minimum tillage, more nitrogen has to be added as rate of decomposition of organic matter is slow.
3. Nodulation is affected in some leguminous crops like peas and broad beans
4. Sowing operations are difficult with ordinary equipment.
5. Continuous use of herbicides causes pollution problems and dominance of perennial problematic weeds.
g. Strip Tillage:
It is a system combining the benefits of no-till and full-width tillage. Tilage is confined to narrow strips where seeds will be planted. Loosened soil in the strip creates a ridge 3 to 4 inches high, which improves soil drainage and warming.
By the end of season, it usually settles down to 1 to 2 inches high and after planting the field is flat. Row middles are untitled and covered with undisturbed crop residue. Fertiliser can also be applied during strip tillage.
Strip tillage is a good alternative to plowing, its benefits include:
1. Soil Conservation:
Undisturbed residue between corn rows (maintains long term no-till benefits).
2. Improved Soil Conditions:
For development of corn plant in row (warmer, mellow seed bed).
3. Banding of Fertilizer:
Placing nutrients near crop roots may allow reduced rates.
4. Optimised Planting Conditions:
Earlier planting, less need for starter fertiliser.
Advantages of conservation tillage include:
1. Surface crop cover reduces soil erosion.
2. Reduced tillage machinery minimises soil compaction.
3. Applicable to steep slopes because of least disturbance to surface soil.
4. Soil moisture conservation due to higher infiltration and reduced evaporation with crop residues on soil surface.
5. Relatively lower cost of tillage compared to conventional tillage.
6. Soil temperature moderation with surface cover of crop residues.
7. Improvement in soil organic matter content.
Disadvantages of conventional tillage include:
1. Buildup of herbicide residues due to dependence on chemicals for weed control.
2. Special equipment is needed for seeding under no tilled or minimum tillage conditions.
3. High risk of pests and diseases due to microclimate favourable to pests and diseases.
4. Crop residues on soil surface interfere with cultural operations.
5. Herbicide resistance and new weed problems may pose a problem.
It appears that the concept of minimum tillage may not work under Indian conditions except on Vertisols to some extent. Minimum tillage is not suitable for Alfisols to conserve soil moisture as per the results of experiments under different situations. High temperature in tropical environment is not conducive to buildup of soil organic matter content with minimum tillage.
Essay # 4. Factors Influencing Tilth:
Factors contributing to tilth are soil texture and structure, organic matter content and weather. Texture is an inherent soil property which is difficult to modify, except to a very small scale.
Agricultural significance of soil structure is related to its effect on porosity and permeability and on the surface area of the soil fraction. Structure which indicate the way in which the individual mineral particles are arranged to form aggregates is important in determining soil tilth.
The structure considered ideal for agriculture is crumb in which the aggregates are small, porous and relatively water stable. The development of soil structure results from the complex interaction between weather, method of cultivation and soil organic matter content.
Soils with high organic matter cultivated at optimum soil moisture leads to crumb structure with aggregate stability. Exposure of soil surface to wetting and drying contributes to breakdown of large clods in heavy soils (self-tillage) leading to loose surface with aggregates desirable in a good seed bed.
Essay # 5. Soil Consistence for Tillage:
The term soil consistence is used to describe the resistance of a soil at different soil moisture contents to mechanical stress or manipulations. It is a composite expression of these forces of mutual attraction among soil particles that determine the ease with which a soil can be worked.
It is usually measured by feeling and manipulating the soil by hand or by pulling a tillage instrument through it. Soil consistence is described at three soil moisture levels: wet, moist and dry.
Terms used to describe soil consistence at these moisture levels are given below:
Tillage aims at ideal tilth for crop production. Its success depends on its timing to a particular soil condition. Relative ease with which a soil can be worked is usually referred to as soil workability. The terms light, medium and heavy are also indicative of the amount of effort or energy required for tillage. Force (drawbar pull) required to draw a plough through soil with 24 per cent clay is about 580 kg as against 704 kg through a soil with 35 per cent clay.
Soil workability depends as consistency—the combination of soil properties, material that determines its resistance to externally applied force such as ploughing and traction of animals or vehicles used in cultivation. The amount of movement or deformation that will take place is related to the shear force which builds up in the soil.
This force results from friction and/or cohesion of the constituent particles. Friction built up between the implement and the soil is a function of weight, roughness and shape of the constituent particles. Cohesion is a function of soil moisture content and texture.
In a loose dry coarse soil, frictional forces predominate while cohesive force is more important in soils with high clay content. Consistency states are described as cemented or hard, friable, plastic and liquid. Coarse textured soil, with less than 10 per cent clay content, are non-plastic and do not exhibit well defined consistency limits.
The shrinkage limit is the state at which the soil passes from moist to dry appearance. Moisture content is just adequate to fill the pores at minimum volume as a result of drying. At plastic limit, particle is surrounded by a thin film of water just sufficient to act as lubricant.
The film of water is thick enough to reduce cohesion between soil particles at liquid limit and results in soil flow under applied force. Between the shrinkage and plastic limits soil is friable and moist, a condition for working the soil with minimum effort and with minimum structural deterioration. Structural deterioration increases at plastic limit.
The difference between shrinkage and plastic limits, in medium and fine textured soils is the friability index, which is a measure of optimum moisture range for cultivation. Higher the index, longer will be the period when cultivation is feasible and soil conditions are optimal for tillage.
Plastic index, the difference between the moisture content at plastic and liquid limits is often used as a general index of workability in terms of soil susceptibility to structural damage. As the plastic index increases, soil consistence increases logarithmically and a proportionally greater effort is required to attain desired tilth.
Heavy soils with more than 28 per cent clay are difficult to manage as they become plastic when too moist and hard and cloddy when too dry. Number of days on which they can be easily worked is small compared with that for other soils. Therefore, timeliness and speed of cultivation are of greater importance on these than on any soil. Consequence of tilling heavy soils beyond critical consistency limits are compaction and puddling.
Inspite of the fact that tillage is essential for crop production it leads to undesirable soil conditions especially due to over-cultivation:
1. Frequent ploughing to a constant depth leads to plough pans.
2. Intensive soil cultivation deteriorates soil aggregates into dust leading to wind and water erosion.
3. Repeated tillage operations hasten the oxidation of organic matter from the soil.
Size distribution of aggregates and mellowness (friability) of soil indicate the condition of tilth. Higher percentage of smaller aggregates of 1 to 2 mm dia
Friability is that property of soil by which the clods when dry become more crumbly. A soil with good tilth is quite porous and has free drainage up to water table. Equal proportion of capillary and non-capillary pores permit adequate water retention in the soil, besides adequate soil aeration for crop growth.
Optimum Water Content for Tillage:
Optimum water content for tillage (OPT) is defined as moisture content of soil at which tillage produces largest number of small aggregates.
Determination of OPT is important because if tillage is carried out on fields that are wetter or drier than OPT it leads to problems including soil structural damage, through production of large clods and an increase in the content of readily dispersible clay which is indicative of soil stability.
The OPT can be determined in relation to volumetric water content at lower plastic limit (PL) of the soil. Suggested OPT are 0.77 PL on a lateritic sandy loam and 0.9 PL on a sandy loam.
For several soils, OPT has been found to equal 0.9 PL, although there are a number of limitations with use of lower plastic limit in determining the optimal moisture content. Firstly it is a property of a moulded soil and not an undisturbed soil in the field and secondly, many sandy soils are not plastic and do not have a lower plastic limit.
Relationships between water content at field capacity (FC) and plastic limit (PL) are as indicated below:
1. When FC < PL: Soil will drain to a water content at which no excessive structural damage will occur on tillage.
2. When FC > PL: Soil will never drain to a water content ideal for tillage.
Many clay soils drain very slowly and as a result they are usually wetter than PL unless they are dried by water extraction by plant uptake. Soil friability is the tendency of a mass of soil to crumble under the action of an applied force. This has been found to be maximum at the PL of a soil.
Essay # 6. Mechanics of Tillage:
The reactions of soil to forces applied by tillage tools is affected by the resistance of soil to compression, shear, adhesion and friction. Practically, all tillage tools consist of devices for applying pressure to the soil, often by means of inclined planes or wedges.
As the tool advances, soil in its path is subjected to compressive stress which in a friable soil results in a shearing action. Shearing of the soil may extend to a considerable distance on either side of the shear plane because of internal friction and cohesive action of moisture films.
Commonly used terms in tillage are:
Any action that changes the state of rest or motion of body. It is completely specified by its magnitude and direction and position of its line of action.
Total force extended upon the implement by a power unit. With tillage implement, it is generally with some angle above horizontal and it may or may not be in a vertical plane parallel to the line of motion.
Horizontal component of pull, parallel to the line of motion.
d. Side draft:
Horizontal component of pull, perpendicular to the line of motion.
e. Specific draft:
Draft per unit area of tilled cross-section. Unit in S.I. system is N cm-2. (N is normal force).
It is rate of doing work. The unit in S.I. system is KW.
Work done when one KW is used for one hour.
h. Friction Coefficient of Soil (F):
It is the ratio of frictional force and the normal force. The magnitude of the frictional force (T) arising when a soil slides along a metal depends on the magnitude of force (N) normal to the contact surface, mechanical composition and soil moisture content, velocity of sliding and several other factors. It can be expressed as F = TIN.
Essay # 7. Types of Tillage:
Tillage operation can be broadly grouped into two, based on the time during which they are carried out:
1. On-season tillage and
2. Off-season tillage.
1. On-Season Tillage:
Tillage for a crop from the start of crop season to the crop harvest are known as on-season tillage operations. It includes preparatory tillage and intertillage.
Preparatory tillage (preparatory cultivation) refers to tillage operations for raising a crop upto sowing or planting as the case may be. It is of two types; primary and secondary tillage. Primary tillage starts with onset of the season. Arable soils on an average are ploughed twice, each time in diagonally opposite directions.
Primary tillage loosens the soil and mixes in fertiliser and/or plant material, resulting in soil with a rough texture. The objective is to cut, lift, twist and turn the soil while incorporating organic and animal wastes into ploughed layer.
Primary tillage aids in improving the soil moisture regime for subsequent operations even if the rains are delayed. Secondary tillage include operations for obtaining seedbed for sowing. Secondary tillage produces finer soil and sometimes shapes the rows.
It can be done by an using various combinations of equipment; plough, disk plough, harrow, dibble, hoe, shovel, rotary tillers, sub-soiler, ridge or bed forming tillers, roller etc. Since the soil is in loose condition due to primary tillage, there may not be any necessity for ploughing the soil.
Blade harrows are worked once or twice to kill the weeds, break up clods and to obtain relatively smooth and levelled surface for subsequent sowing. After the crop is sown, the soil may need further tillage to control weeds, break up crusting or create soil mulch. All such tillage operations upto crop harvest are known as intertillage or intercultural operations.
Lowland rice grown under land submergence is prepared by puddling. Manipulation of soil under water with tools and implements to break down the soil aggregates is called puddling and the soil is called puddled soil. It disrupts the continuity of the pore spaces, reduces pore space and increases bulk density. Dispersed clay breaks transmission of pores and forms a thin layer over the surface.
As a consequence of all these changes, deep percolation is greatly reduced. The three main objectives of puddling are; ideal soil condition for planting seedlings, reducing deep percolation losses of water and weed control. Standing water in the field due to puddled soil, however, has several advantages in rice production.
Factors Influencing Preparatory Tillage:
Several factors influence the preparatory tillage.
Prominent among them are:
It dictates the type and extent of preparatory cultivation. Smaller crop seeds like finger-millet, tobacco, etc., require a fine seedbed which can provide intimate soil-seed contact as against relatively coarser seed bed for larger size seeds such as sorghum, maize, pulses etc.
Delicate seeds such as tomato, chillies, cabbage, cauliflower require finer tilth with shallow cover over seeds. Root or tuber crops require deep tillage. Rice needs puddling.
2. Soil Type:
It dictates the range of soil moisture and the time (period) during which the soil can be tilled. Light soils require early and rapid land preparation due to free drainage and low retentive capacity as against heavy soils which require considerable time to start tillage. The energy requirement for light soils is less than that for heavy soils. Loamy soils can be brought to good tilth with little expenditure of energy.
It influences soils moisture content, draught required for tilling and the type of cultivation. Low rainfall and poor water retentive capacity of shallow soil do not permit deep ploughing at the start of the season. Contour tillage is necessary for crops on sloppy lands. Heavy soils developing cracks during summer (self-tilled) need only harrowing. Light soils of arid regions need coarse tilth to minimise wind erosion.
4. Type of Farming:
It influences the intensity of land preparation. In dryland agriculture where only one crop is taken per year, deep ploughing is necessary to eradicate perennial weeds and to conserve soil moisture. Land is tilled for each crop although the year under intensive irrigated farming. Repeated shallow tilling is adequate under such intensive cropping.
5. Cropping System:
Cropping system involving different crops need different types of tillage. In general, crop following rice needs repeated preparatory cultivation for obtaining an ideal seed bed. Crops following tuber crops like potato require minimum tillage. Similarly, crops following pulses need lesser tillage than that of following sorghum, maize or sugarcane.
2. Off-Season Tillage:
Tillage operations during uncropped season for special purposes other than that for immediately raising the crop in the season are said to be off-season tillages. Taking advantage of summer rains, the field is ploughed deep (deep ploughing) to eradicate perennial weeds and to destroy soil borne pathogens, pests and parasites and to check erosion. This tillage is known as summer tillage.
To break open the hard plough pans, reduce soil compaction and to improve drainage, the field is ploughed very deep or subsoil plough is used. This tillage is usually known as sub-soiling.
Vertisols are often left un-cropped during a part of the rainy season due to unfavourable weather or soil conditions or both. The soil is tilled during this period to control weeds and to create soil mulch for conserving moisture to subsequent crops grown during post-rainy season.
This tillage is called fallow, mulch tillage or clean tillage. In dryland agriculture, tillage initiated with the onset of summer showers is continued periodically until sowing, during crop period and even after the crop harvest to avoid weed growth, hard pans and soil water erosion besides conserving soil moisture. Such tillage is usually referred to as year-round tillage.
Essay # 8. Systems of Tillage:
Based on the intensity of tillage, three tillage systems are recognised.
1. Intensive Tillage:
Intensive tillage systems leave less than 15 per cent crop residue cover of small grain residue. These types of tillage systems are often referred to as conventional tillage systems. These systems involve often multiple operations with implements such as a mold board, disk, and/or chisel plow. Then a finisher with a harrow, rolling basket and cutter can be used to prepare seed bed. There are many variations.
2. Reduced Tillage:
Reduced tillage systems leave between 15 and 30 per cent residue cover on soil of small grain residue during the critical erosion period. This may involve the use of a chisel plow, field cultivators or other implements. See the general comments below to see how they can affect the amount of residue.
3. Conservation Tillage:
Conservation tillage systems are methods of soil tillage which leave a minimum of 30 per cent of crop residue on soil of small grain residue on the surface during critical soil erosion period. This slows water movement, which reduces the amount of soil erosion. Conservation tillage systems also benefit farmers by reducing fuel consumption and soil compaction.
By reducing the number of times the farmer travels over the field, farmers realise significant savings in fuel and labor. Conservation tillage was used on about 38 per cent of all US cropland. However, conservation tillage systems delay warming of the soil due to the reduction of dark earth exposure to the warmth of the spring sun, thus delaying the planting of the next year’s spring crop.
Essay # 9. Implements Required for Tillage:
Digging sticks and simple hoes were the earliest tools of cultivation used by men. Still widely followed in less developed parts of Africa, they do little more than scratching the surface of the ground. The plough which digs deeper, developed in the history of man has remained the most effective and widely used implement with modifications and alterations. Wooden ploughs drawn by oxen are still used in many parts of India.
Mould board plough came into use in the middle ages. The scientific design of the iron mould board plough was worked out towards the end of eighteenth century. Invention of the design of the mould board plough has been claimed by three people: William Amos of England, James Small of Scotland and Thomas Jefferson of USA.
The invention was by James Small and Thomas Jefferson independently and they will have equal priority. The design by William Amos appeared much later. Among other innovations in Britain in the eighteenth century were the seed-drill and the horse-hoe introduced by Jethro Tull.
In India, traditional wooden plough is a multi-purpose implement used for land preparation, sowing the seed, inter-cultivation, placement of fertiliser, forming bunds and irrigation channels and even for harvesting tuber crops.
Tillage implements can be broadly grouped according to the work:
1. Primary Tillage (Ploughing):
Traditional wooden plough, bose plough, disc plough, turn- wrest plough, wetland puddler, cage wheels.
2. Secondary Tillage (Harrowing):
Tractor drawn cultivators, tractor drawn disc harrow, blade harrow, spike tooth harrow, spring line harrow and chain harrow, traditional blade harrows like pedda guntaka and guntaka.
Traditional wooden plough, small blade harrows like danthies, rekkeda guntaka, metla guntaka, meesala guntaka, improved HM guntaka, star-weeder and rotary weeder (for rice).
4. Off-Season Tillage:
Traditional wooden plough (big), mole plough, subsoil plough, chisel plough, ridge plough, blade harrows, buck scrapper.
5. Sowing and Planting:
Traditional wooden plough, local seed drill (gorrus with varying number of tynes). mechanical seed drills, ferti-seed drills.
6. Implements for Specific Purposes:
Ridge plough, bund former, traditional wooden markers (making intercepts for planting seed), wooden plank for covering seeds after sowing and for levelling the soil.
More commonly used traditional implements for tillage, sowing and intercultural (Fig. 3.3) are traditional plough (desi plough), seed drill (gorru) and blade harrows (guniakas and danties). Improved implements (Figs. 3.4 and 3.5), both animal and tractor drawn, are now available for different farm operations.