Here is an essay on the ‘Role of Livestock in Indian Agriculture’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on the ‘Role of Livestock in Indian Agriculture’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Livestock Sector
- Essay on the Introduction to Livestock Sector
- Essay on the Livestock Rearing Practices in India
- Essay on the Animal Census and Economic Importance of Livestock Sector
- Essay on the Organic Livestock Production Units
- Essay on the Emerging Area in Livestock Production and Allied Activities
- Essay on the Loans Provided to Livestock-Based Enterprises from Banks
- Essay on the Insurance Schemes for Livestock Sector
- Essay on the Conclusion to Livestock Sector
Essay # 1. Introduction to Livestock Sector:
Livestock sector plays a multi-faceted role in socio-economic development of rural households. Livestock rearing has significant positive impact on equity in terms of income and employment and poverty reduction in rural areas as distribution of livestock is more egalitarian as compared to land.
In India, over 70% of the rural households own livestock and a majority of livestock owning households are small, marginal and landless farmers. Small animals like sheep, goats, pigs and poultry are largely kept by the poor households for commercial purposes due to their low initial investment and operational costs.
In the recent decade, demand for various livestock-based products has increased significantly due to increase in per capita income, urbanization, taste and preference and increased awareness about food nutrition. Livestock sector is likely to emerge as an important facet for agricultural growth in the coming decades and is also considered as a potential sector for export earnings.
Development of animal husbandry is envisaged as an integral part of a sound system of diversified agriculture. Emphasis is laid on mixed farming, a system in which crop production and animal husbandry are dovetailed for efficient and economic utilisation of land, labour and capital.
The integration of agriculture farming with animal husbandry is essential for the better utilisation of farm by-products, maintenance of soil .fertility, fuller employment for agriculturists throughout the year and increase in rural incomes.
Essay # 2. Livestock Rearing Practices in India:
Livestock rearing in India is mainly practised as a backyard production system wherein the farmers rear a few livestock specially for meeting the household requirements and the excess milk is sold in local market or milk collecting units. Thus, by being as an important means of income and employment for these households livestock helps to alleviate poverty and smoothen income distribution.
In addition, livestock asset can be easily converted into cash, and thus acts as cushion against shocks of crop failure particularly in the less favoured environments. Further it has been found that most of the livestock population is owned by the small and marginal fanners, who possess 71% of cattle, 63% of buffaloes, 66% of small ruminants, 70% of pigs and 74% of poultry (Table 5.1).
This implies that marginal and small holders derive a considerable proportion of their income from livestock. Evidences indicate that increase in income from livestock in rural areas reduce income inequality.
Essay # 3. Animal Census and Economic Importance of Livestock Sector:
India possesses one of the largest livestock populations in the world which is at present estimated to be more than 484.9 million with the top position in cattle (178.8 million), Buffalo (101 million), goat (126 million) and sheep (62 million). Further the country has about 14% of the world cattle population and 57.30% of the world buffalo population. The country possesses 6% of sheep and 17% of world goat population.
Further our country has larger number of breeds of cattle (30), buffalo (10), goat (20) and sheep (42). Of the total buffalo and cattle breeds of the world, approx., 75% and 20% respectively are available in Asia and 15% and 5% in India. The poultry which was considered as a backyard venture in the early 60’s has now been transformed into strong agro-based farming activity. India accounts for nearly 3% of the world poultry population.
Further with an annual production of about 102 million tone of milk and 46.1 billion eggs, India ranks 1st and 2nd in world respectively, and is one of the top ten broiler producers in the world. Our country has achieved annual growth rates of 4-5% for milk, meat and egg production during the last decade. The value of output from animal husbandry and dairying to agriculture over the years has increased and is about 26% of the agricultural GDP and approx., 5.7% of the national GDP. This has increased gradually from 14% in 1980-81.
On the other hand, the contribution of the agricultural sector to the gross domestic product decreased from 35% in 1980-81 to 26% in 1997-98. Further agriculture got 4% share of annual budget but growth rate is not increasing and animal husbandry sector is getting only 1% share but there is increase in annual growth rate. Animal husbandly sector contribute 5.7 to 8% growth rate as compared to the 1.7-2% growth in crop production per year.
In fact the increasing growth rate of animal husbandry will help the agriculture sector to acquire 4% increase in growth as a whole to make nation developed country. Although the contribution of livestock to Ag GDP has been rising continuously, its contribution to rural employment is not so encouraging.
In terms of principal activity livestock employs about 5% of the rural work force, its share has, however, declined to 1% at present. Low share in rural employment is because livestock rearing in India is taken up as a subsidiary to crop production and mostly practised as a supporting and backyard enterprise.
Table 5.2 is indicating the census data of 2003, however, in text present estimated census and production data has been depicted.
There is a tremendous scope of promoting the backyard livestock keeping in India into commercial micro-enterprises through entrepreneurship development programmes and entrepreneur favourable government policies. Apart from rearing of livestock, the livestock-based industry has vast scope of generating additional income and employment through its-various allied enterprises such as the commercial livestock rearing units, livestock input industry, livestock product processing units and organic livestock production units which can be harnessed for increasing employment and income in the rural areas.
Essay # 4. Organic Livestock Production Units:
In the past decade, there has been an increasing awareness about the use of organic products especially in developed countries. The demand for organic products has created new export opportunities for the developing world. The organic products are sold at impressive premiums often at prices 20% higher than the identical traditional products.
Therefore, there exists tremendous opportunities of entrepreneurship development through organic livestock production in our country. The major characteristic of the organic food is that it is produced in a naturally defined ecosystem without the use of any artificial means. But production of organic food especially in developed countries is a tough task as there is a heavy use of chemicals such as fertilizer, pesticide and herbicides.
India has an edge over the developed countries in this aspect as still in most parts of our country the agricultural production is chemical free and the farmers are very close to being organic. The only difference is that they are not aware about the standards and procedures so as to get their products certified as organic products.
Therefore the major requirement is of making our farmers aware about the national standards for organic production developed by APEDA, Ministry of Commerce, GOI, so as to help them fetch higher price for their produce. Such an effort will in turn generate additional employment and income in the livestock sector.
Livestock Product Post-Harvest Processing Units:
In India, the revenue from livestock sector is mostly generated by the raw livestock produce, i.e. milk, meat and eggs. Hardly a small percent is being processed and value added. Post-harvest processing helps in enhancing the shelf life of livestock products, which are a highly perishable commodity and also helps in reducing contamination thereby enhancing the palatability and market value of the livestock products.
The annual production of meat and poultry products in India is estimated to be almost 4 million tones per annum, whereas about 1 percent of meat produced is converted into value added products. There is a tremendous opportunity in the livestock sector for employment generation through livestock product processing and value addition. The rural youth can establish various types of livestock product processing and value addition units to earn a livelihood, viz.
1. Milk chilling, storage and packaging units.
2. Meat freezing and packaging units.
3. Milk pasteurization units.
4. Commercial milk product (ghee, paneer, khoa, etc.) production.
5. Commercial meat products value addition unit for preparing nuggets, soup powder, papad, sausage, pickle, crackles, patties, samosa, etc. from mutton, chicken, fish pork and eggs.
6. Processing unit for important organs of dead animals or slaughter house by products.
Processing Units for Important Organs of Dead Animals:
In India, many million animals die every year and there is no proper processing place or unit in rural area where remaining body parts of dead animals (skin, hides, hair bristles, horn, hoof, intestine, bones, etc.) can be processed and can be converted into value added products. Processing techniques are easy and rural youth can get the training from IVRI or any veterinary college.
Collections of various glands from slaughter animals are also very beneficial to prepare various kinds of hormones, enzymes, medicines. The processed organ or parts of dead animals are in great demand not in our country but abroad also. Although these practices are already in vogue in villages and slaughter houses but in crude form not scientifically.
Essay # 5. Emerging Area in Livestock Production and Allied Activities:
India ranks no. 1 in the world in cattle population, buffalo population, milk production. White revolution played an important role in envisaging high yield genes, cross-bred, artificial insemination and other improved technological development. As the population is increasing fast land holding gets shrinking and it is being smaller and smaller.
Under this environment, we have to focus more on non-farm activities which will need lesser land holding. Increased income, employment generation in rural areas and also providing a healthy generation to the country. Bank has approved various bankable schemes for daily development, poultry development for egg production, hatcheries, broiler production, duck-rearing, piggeries, sheep and goat rearing, etc.
Salient features of some of the schemes are as under:
Agriclinic and Agribusiness Centres:
To provide self-employment opportunities to technically trained persons and strengthen transfer of technology and extension of services.
Agricultural graduates/graduates in subject allied to agriculture like horticulture, animal husbandry, and forestry, dairy, veterinary, poultry, pisciculture and other activities.
Individual activity- Rs.10 lacs.
Rs.50 lacs (group = individuals of which 1 management graduate).
As applicable to direct agricultural advances.
Margin and Security:
5 to 10 years with grace period of maximum 2 years.
Essay # 6. Loans Provided to Livestock-Based Enterprises from Banks:
Various banks are providing loan for livestock-based enterprises. Here two models, i.e. financing for dairy and poultry unit have been given. However, time to time, and bank to bank financing terms and conditions may vary.
Model Scheme for Financing a Diary Unit of 10 Cross-Bred Cows:
Economics of 10 Cross-Bred Cows Unit:
Financing for Poultry Units:
i. The site should be dry, without water logging, well drained and properly accessible. It should be 500 meters away from the existing farm.
ii. Distance between brooder shed, grower shed and layer shed should be 100 ft. from each other.
iii. Distance between two layers sheds should be 70 ft.
iv. The shed should have East West orientation.
v. Height of shed should 16 to 22 ft. with a maximum width of 35 ft. and a length of 100 to 400 ft.
vi. Feed mixing unit should be minimum 300 ft. away from sheds.
vii. Floor space Norms – Sheds (sq. ft.)
ix. Vaccination schedule for layers, and broilers as suggested by poultry experts should be strictly followed. All vaccinations should be completed before 15 to 16 weeks of age.
x. The birds should be insured.
The premium rate of insurance of birds, equipment and building, etc., is:
xi. The total flock is brought in batches depending on the availability of sheds. Interval between introductions of batches should be 12 weeks.
xii. The economic size is 50000 birds for a layer unit in traditional area. For broilers, the unit size can be determined primarily based on the market potential in the area.
All the initiatives discussed above need massive financial support both from government and banks. The financial institutions should look at agriculture as a viable commercial activity rather than a traditional one and thus play a major role in changing the face of rural economy. It is all the more essential in the present day that all the institutions connected with agriculture and rural development should work with the spirit of partnership to give boost to the rural economy as per the policy initiatives of the government.
Essay # 7. Insurance Schemes for Livestock Sector:
Insurance of livestock is highly essential as animals suffer from many natural and unnatural calamities and animal may die due to various ailments at any time and age. There are certain diseases like FMD, HS, anthrax, leptospirosis, brucellosis, TB, paratuberculosis, chemical plant toxicity or poisoning, burn, electrocution, drowning of the animals in flood, death due to enmity, etc. So it is essential to farmers/livestock owners to protect themselves from these losses.
They may insure their animals with any insurance company, viz:
1. National Insurance Co. Ltd.
2. The New India Assurance Co. Ltd.
3. Oriental Insurance Co. Ltd.
4. United India Insurance Co. Ltd.
The premiums of the insurance of all the four companies are same. If farmers/livestock owners are taking loan from any bank it become compulsory to get insured the animal otherwise also insurance always protect livestock owners from the losses of various causative agents.
Essay # 8. Conclusion to Livestock Sector:
Animal husbandry is the backbone of Indian agriculture and it is having potential to increase percent annual growth rate and GDP, for making livestock sector potential enterprise. A suitable infrastructure technical support is must.
There are 5 thumb needs to develop livestock industry, viz.:
1. Proper breeding and reproduction policy at national level.
2. Proper nutrition for all the seasons and adverse condition also. It can be decided on regional level by developing feed and fodder banks.
3. Proper management, i.e. proper housing and hygienic conditions.
4. Proper health management, viz. preventive and therapeutic.
5. Proper marketing awareness for livestock owners and trained them for result oriented techniques for value addition products.
Government of India should also provide subsidy to animal sector as well as frame such policies which develop the interest of farmers in livestock sector. Support of technocrat is highly needed to train the rural masses so that they can apply the latest technical knowledge for developing proper enterprise in this sector.