Everything you need to know about soybean cultivation, harvest and production:- 1. Introduction to Soybean 2. Climate Required for Cultivating Soybean 3. Soil Required for Cultivation 4. Field Preparation 5. Sowing Time 6. Manure and Fertilizers 7. Water Management 8. Weed Management 9. Cropping Systems 10. Cultivation 11. Uses 12. Harvesting and Threshing 13. Varieties 14. Diseases 15. Insect Pests.
Soybean Cultivation: How to Cultivate Soybean In India [A Guide for Farmers]
- Introduction to Soybean
- Climate Required for Cultivating Soybean
- Soil Required for Cultivating Soybean
- Field Preparation of Soybean
- Sowing Time of Soybean
- Manure and Fertilizers of Soybean
- Water Management of Soybean
- Weed Management of Soybean
- Cropping Systems of Soybean
- Cultivation of Soybean
- Uses of Soybean
- Harvesting and Threshing of Soybean
- Varieties of Soybean
- Diseases of Soybean
- Insect Pests of Soybean
1. Introduction to Soybean:
Soybean is one of the oldest crops grown by man. It was cultivated in China centuries ago, long before the existence of written records. It is reported to have originated in southeast Asia. While soybean is being grown in India for many years, the acreage is small, because only a few farmers grow it.
The crop can be grown in areas of the country, where the rainfall is 90 cm or less. It is now cultivated in Assam, Orissa, West Bengal, Manipur, the Khasi and Naga hills, the Kumaon hills of UP and in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir up to an elevation of 1830 m.
Soybean seed contains about 40% high-quality protein and it is the richest source of vegetable protein. It further contains about 20% oil and, therefore, occupies an intermediate position between legumes and oilseeds.
Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) belongs to the sub-family Papilionaceae of the family Leguminosae. It is an annual herb, which is usually sub-erect or twining, bushy and rather leafy. Leaves alternate and trifoliate except at the first two nodes. Petioles long. Leaflets generally ovate and lanceolate in shape. Leaves, stems and pods normally covered with pubescence.
Flowers small, white or purple in colour and are borne on short axillary racemes. Sepals 5, connate. Petals little exserted. Stamens 10, monadelphous or at length diadelphous. Ovary sub-sessile. Style short and incurved. Stigma terminal and capitate. Pods small, flattened or cylindrical, in clusters of 3-5, densely hairy. Usually 1-3 seeds present in a pod, but there may be more. Seeds elliptical compressed and may be yellow, chocolate or black coloured.
Soybean is the major oilseed crop in the world accounts for 50% of the total area as well as production. It provides approx. 60% of vegetable protein & 30% of oil in the world.
Prophylls – tiny paired simple leaves (less than 1mm in length) present at the base of each lateral branch in Soybean.
First nodules are visible on 10th days after sowing.
It is called wonder crop and meat for the poor.
It is the richest, cheapest and easiest source of best quality proteins and fats.
Linoleic acid – 56-60% (Soybean) (Unsaturated fat) In Sunflower – 64%
In safflower – 78% (highest)
Iodine no. of Soybean oil=140 Linseed oil = 180
Iodine no. is the measure of unsaturation of fatty acid and is based on the fact that halogen addition occurs to the unsaturated bonds until they are completely saturated. It can be determined by Hanus Method expressed as gram of iodine absorbed per 100g of oil.
Due to presence of enzyme lipoxidase, Soybean is not used as Dal which produces off flavour.
The climatic requirements for soybean are almost the same as for Maize.
It is low in S-containing amino acids viz. methionine (1.2%) and cysteine (0.8%). High in lysine (6.2%) and tryptophane (1.4%) [Lysine content is very low in cereals]. Proteins in soybean are mostly globulin and partly albumins. Lysine is the major amino acid but some antinutritional substances are also present in the seed like trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinins and oligosaccharides. 12-14% saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acid), Oleic acid – 30-35%, Linolenic acid – 5-10%, good amount of vit B.
Presently cultivated variety is yellow seeded variety. Black seeded variety is not popular due to its susceptibility to diseases, low yield and highly shattering pods.
2. Climate Required for Cultivating Soybean:
Soybean grows well in warm and moist climates from sea level to an elevation of 1200- 2000 meter. Temperature of 15-32°C is optimum for germination. For growth and development, the optimum temperature is 30-33°C. At lower temperatures crop growth is retarded which delayed the flowering.
The temperature of 18°C or less does not permit pod set. It has been observed that low temperatures reduce the oil content, whereas higher temperatures during seed formation increase the oil content in seed. Warmer temperature of 26-30°C hastens the diversion of N and C from vegetative tissues and promotes earlier development of pod as sink.
Heat stress of > 40°C results in pod abscission and also hamper nodulation. A relative humidity of 70-75% is optimum for pod formation. The crop cannot tolerate frost and waterlogging. It is grown in areas of 40-75 cm annual rainfall. Drought at flowering or just before flowering stage resulted in the premature flower and pod dropping.
Rains during maturity impair the quality of grain. Cloudy weather prolongs vegetative phase. It is a short-day plant and highly photosensitive. A little variation in day length is found to affect flowering significantly. Normally, it requires a photoperiod of less the 14 hours provided that temperatures are also favourable.
3. Soil Required for Cultivating Soybean:
Soybean thrives best on well drained medium textured, moderate to deep soils. Sandy loam to clay loams with medium water holding capacity, reasonable depth and comparatively rich in organic carbon contents is preferred for its cultivation. Soils with neutral pH (6.5-7.5) are ideal. Soil should be loose and well aerated as compacted soils are harmful for root nodule development.
The field should have appropriate drainage during growing period of the crop. Acidic and alkaline soils are not suitable as they inhibit germination of soybean seeds. The soils with an electrical conductivity >4dS/m and exchangeable sodium percentage >15% are not suitable for soybean.
4. Field Preparation of Soybean:
Soybean requires well pulverized seed bed with no clods for proper germination and crop establishment. The soil should be prepared by one deep ploughing with mould board plough followed by 2-3 cross harrowings and planking after each harrowing to level the field.
To protect the crop from soil borne insects especially the termites, 20 kg endosulfan dust 4% should be mixed into the soil just before last harrowing. There should be optimum moisture in the field at the time of sowing.
5. Sowing Time of Soybean:
Time of sowing of kharif crop is dependent on onset of monsoon or availability of irrigation water. The sowing of kharif soybeans starts from last week of June and continue up to first fortnight of July. Sowing of soybeans soon after the onset of monsoon rains is best as compared. In northern and central India, last week pi June is the optimum time of sowing under irrigated conditions.
However, it not only takes long duration to maturity but also invites the incidence of yellow mosaic virus disease. Under irrigated conditions, the summer crop is sown in between middle of February to middle of March. Soybean is also cultivated as rabi crop and the seed is sown in October and November.
The seed should be healthy and free from diseases. Most important disease causing damage in soybean are Rhizoctonia, Fusarium and Phythium sp. To protect the crop from seed borne or to some extent soil borne diseases, soybean seed should be treated with thiram or bavistin @ 3 g/kg of seed. Besides, the fungicidal treatment, inoculation of seed with Rhizobium culture is also important, especially when the crop is cultivated first time in any soil.
Accordingly, the seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum strains of soybean culture to overcome the problem of poor nodulation. The seeds are moisten with 10 % solution of gur or sugar (dissolving 100 g gur/sugar in one litre of water) and Rhizobium culture @ 5 g/kg seed is added and mixed thoroughly.
Then the inoculated seeds are dried in shade till the time of sowing. Sowing of treated seeds should be finished within two hours of inoculation. In case Rhizobium culture is not available, seeds may be sown after mixing with the soils drawn from 15 cm deep soils of field which were under soybean cultivation for consecutive 2-3 years.
Seed Rate and Spacing:
Seed rate depends upon size of seed, test weight, germination percentage, spacing and method of sowing. An optimum plant population of 3 lakhs plants/ha must be maintained for higher yield. Normally, soybean crop needs about 70-80 kg/ha seed during kharif season and 100-120 kg/ha seed during spring and summer seasons. A spacing of 45 cm x 5 cm for kharif crop and 30 cm x 3 cm for spring and summer crops is optimum. Highly productive environment causes lodging which may reduce yield upto 23-27%.
In such cases, generally wider spacing is recommended. Interplant competition increases with increased plant population resulting in taller plants with smaller stem diameters, which accentuates lodging problems and fewer branches, pods, and seeds per plant. Low plant populations or thin stands cause low branching and pods produced lower on the stem, which increases harvest losses. Soybean has ability to compensate for erratic germination to some extent due to ‘ plant plasticity’.
Intercropping with other crops either in alternate rows or 2 rows of soybean between two rows of main crop would require 60% of the seed rate. Drier soil conditions usually require a lower seed rate while late plantings require increased seed rates to compensate for lack of cany growth. The recommended seeding rate, spacing and plant population for various zones. It should be remembered as row spacing decreases, the number of seeds or plants per unit area also decreases to obtain the same populations.
Methods of Sowing:
Soybean is traditionally sown by broadcast method. However, it involves several problems; viz. plants are not properly spaced, resulting in inconvenience in hoeing, weeding etc. Broadcast method is still ideal for fodder and green manure crop. For seed purposes, the crop is sown in rows with the help of seed drill or behind the plough. In case of line sowing, the seeds should be sown in rows.
The depth of sowing should not be more than 2-3 cm in heavy soils with optimum moisture whereas sowing may be done to a depth of 3-5 cm in light to medium-textured soils under optimal moisture conditions. With early plantings, slightly shallower seed placement will speed emergence, and with late plantings in dry soil, slightly deeper placement may be necessary to put the seed in contact with moisture.
Soybeans can emerge from plantings deeper than 10 cm, but seedling emergence is slowed. The seedlings are subjected to more disease organisms, and poor stands frequently occur on heavy soil from surface crusting. When soil crusting occurs, the hypocotyl of the seedling is not able to break through the crust.
If the crust is left undisturbed, the hypocotyl arch or crook will break or the seedling will grow laterally, never emerging. A rotary hoe is useful for breaking a crusted soil and allowing the seedlings to emerge, but it will reduce the plant population slightly.
6. Manure and Fertilizers of Soybean:
Fertile soils that produce high yields of other crops will also produce high yields of soybean. Total nutrient uptake by soybean depends on yield obtained, which will vary with season, variety, soil, and cultural practices. Soybeans take up relatively small amounts of nutrients early in the season, but as they grow and develop, the daily rate of nutrient uptake increases.
Soybeans need an adequate supply of nutrients at each developmental stage for optimum growth. Soybean removes substantial amount of nutrients from the soil. The nutrient requirement in India with low to moderate yield levels (~ 1.1 t/ha) are entirely different from countries with 4-8 tonnes/ha productivity. In these countries, removal of P and K far exceeds their application. Soybean has rapid uptake of nutrients at pod filling period.
For raising a good crop, application of 15-20 t/ ha of FYM is recommended under normal conditions, soybean will need no nitrogen fertilizers as the nodule bacteria will fix sufficient nitrogen for optimum growth. If soybean have been grown recently on the land and were well nodulated, reinoculation probably is not necessary. However, if there is any question about the abundance of nodule-forming bacteria in the soil, or if the land has no previous history of soybean production, inoculation of the soybean is recommended.
Since soybean is a member of the family Leguminoceae, it drives N from the soil and by fixing atmospheric N in association with nitrogen fixing bacteria viz. Bradyrhizobium japonicum to meet most of its requirement. Until nodulation occurs, the soybean plant depends on soil nitrogen for growth.
To meet the N requirement of crop before fixation starts, 40 kg N/ha is applied at the time of sowing. At flowering stage, the nitrogen supply from soil and symbiotic N fixation often lags behind the requirement. Hence top dressing of 20 kg N/ha would be required.
Soybean requires liberal P fertilization for proper nodulation. Phosphorus nutrition results in better root and nodule development which enhanced the N fixing capacity of the plants, soybean requires plenty of phosphorus throughout the growing season. The period of high demand of P begins just before the initiation of pods and continues until about ten days before the seeds are fully developed.
In acidic soils, P gets fixed owing to predominance of aluminium and iron oxides. Hence, liming of such soils is desirable for raising a good crop. In general, 60-80 kg P2O5/ha is recommended as basal application. Phosphorus moves little in the soil, making it necessary to incorporate broadcast applications.
If starter fertilizer is used, the material should be placed to the side and below the seed. Soybean seeds are very easily injured by fertilizers, therefore, no direct seed contact with fertilizer is advised.
Soybean contains a higher amount of potassium in the grain than does wheat, maize or grain sorghum and thus remove more potassium. Therefore, potassium need of soybean is the highest amongst 3 primary nutrients. For proper nodulation, 600-800 mg K/kg biomass is required.
Indian soils are rich in potassium, and therefore the response is rare. In K deficient soils, basal application of 40 kg K2O/ha is recommended. To correct K deficiency in a standing crop, 0.5% foliar spray of KCl is recommended.
Soybean requires S for oil synthesis. In areas with low S availability, 20 kg S/ha is necessary. In sodic soils and high rainfall zones, soybean usually encounters Zn deficiency. Further, liberal P fertilization also aggravates Zn deficiency due to their antagonism. Hence, application of 5 kg Zn/ha recommendation is made for all soybean growing zones.
7. Water Management of Soybean:
The soybean is quite drought-resistant once it becomes established, but it responds well to irrigation. Its water requirement is 500 to 600 mm depending upon the type of soils and prevailing climatic conditions. In kharif soybean, drainage is more important than irrigation. In soybean, sprouting, flowering, pod initiation and grain filling are critical stages of irrigation. Moisture stress at flowering and pod initiation results in flower and pod abortion, while stress at grain filling reduces seed size.
Coarse-textured soils (sands) have a much lower water- holding capacity than the fine-textured soils. Soybeans on sandy soils require much more frequent irrigation because of the low water-holding capacity. Soybean may require 2.5 to 5 cm of water every 3-7 days during the peak use periods. It is necessary to avoid flooding/waterlogging of soybean fields at any stage of the crop, especially waterlogging at floral initiation is detrimental because it retards nodulation and overall root activity, which is most crucial at this stage.
In heavy rainfall areas, ridge and furrow planting is recommended to avoid flooding. Spring and summer season soybean is grown with assured irrigation facilities, and requires 3-4 and 5-6 irrigations, respectively.
Under prolonged dry spells, kharif crop also requires protective irrigation at the end of flowering to pod initiation stages. Beginning with emergence, water requirement progressively increase as crop grown in stature and foliage. It peaks around flowering and pod formation, when the crop needs 0.75 cm water/day.
8. Weed Management of Soybean:
Weeds growing with soybeans compete with the crop for light, moisture, and nutrients. Uncontrolled weeds in the soybean field can cause reduction in yield up to 45-50% depending upon the intensity, nature and the duration of weed competition.
The initial 30-40 days have been found as critical period of crop weed competition. An effective weed-management programme requires knowledge of the potential weed problems and implementing timely weed-control measures.
Soybean crop is heavily infested with many weeds, especially Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colonum, Sorghum halepense, Setaria glauca, Cynodon dactylon, Celossia argentia and Trianthema monogyna etc. during the initial stages of growth. Soybeans are very competitive with weeds once the crop develops a canopy, but early emerging weeds can cause serious problems. Thus, early-season weed control is the key to providing the soybeans with a competitive advantage and minimizing the effect of weeds.
The most effective weed-control programmes involve a variety of control practices in an integrated weed-management system, including crop rotation, cultivation, sound agronomic practices, and judicious use of herbicides. A well-timed cultivation or herbicide treatment can greatly reduce densities of annual weeds.
Two manual weedings or hoeings at 20 and 40 days after sowing may effectively control the weeds in soybean. Hand removal of scattered, newly introduced weeds may be a wise investment if done in time to prevent a serious weed problem from becoming established in a field. However, continuous rains may limit the utility of manual weeding/hoeing. Under such cases, use of herbicides is inevitable. Herbicides, if used properly, are safe and effective method to control certain weeds in soybeans.
However, herbicides will not solve all weed problems and should be used only as needed in an integrated weed management programme. Important factors to consider when choosing the herbicide include – (i) weeds present, (ii) stage of crop and weed growth, (iii) herbicide persistence and crop rotation restrictions, (iv) a environmental considerations, and (v) herbicide costs. Knowledge of the weed problems in a field and proper weed identification are essential when making herbicide application.
Most herbicides selectively control certain weeds when applied as directed on the herbicide label. Weeds not listed on the label probably will not be controlled. Pre-plant incorporation of fluchloralin @ 0.75-1.00 kg/ha or pre-emergence application of alachlor @ 1.5-2.0 kg/ha or metolochlor or chlomazone or pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha or metribuzin @ 0.75 kg/ha have been found effective to control annual grasses and broad leaved weeds.
In recent times, some post-emergence herbicides are also used for the control of grasses. They include quizalofop-ethyl @ 50 g/ha 25 days after sowing (DAS) or imazethapyr @ 75- 100 g/ha (15-20 DAS) in 750-800 liters water/ha. Postemergence herbicides are most effective when applied to small weeds that are actively growing.
Application stage, environmental conditions, and adjuvants greatly influence postemergence herbicide performance. Always consult the label and follow directions concerning application rates, timing, spray additives, application technique, personal protection and any other restriction on specific herbicide use and weed control.
9. Cropping Systems of Soybean:
Mixed cropping of soybean with maize, sesame and ragi has been found feasible and remunerative. In mixed stand of maize and soybean, the yield of maize is not affected, and an additional 1.0-1.2 t/ha of soybean grain can be obtained.
In this system maize is planted at 100 cm row spacing keeping plant-to-plant distance of 10 cm, and 3 rows of soybean are planted in between maize rows. In north India, it has tremendous scope as an intercrop in pigeonpea, maize, cotton and upland rice. In southern part of the country, soybean has a good scope as intercrop in cotton, sorghum, pigeonpea, groundnut and sugarcane.
In central India, it has been found very remunerative on the fallow lands in kharif. In low rainfall areas of Madhya Pradesh, soybean-rabi cropping has been found more economical than kharif fallow.
Some common soybean based rotations followed in north India are given below:
Soybean-wheat (most extensively followed in 2 m ha)
10. Cultivation of Soybean:
The land for raising the crop is ploughed thoroughly so as to bring the soil to a good tilth. A deep ploughing immediately after the harvest of the previous crop, followed by two or three ordinary ploughings, enables the seed bed to be properly prepared. Leaf mould or farmyard manure may be applied at the rate of 25-35 cartloads per hectare, if the soil is of low fertility.
Seeds are sown in June-July, at the outbreak of monsoon, in rows 30-45 cm apart, the optimum seed rate varying from 75-100 kg per hectare. This provides a seed to seed distance of 5 cm and a plant population of 4, 00,000 per hectare. Seed-drills are generally used for the purpose of sowing. In order to control seed and seedling rots, it is desirable to treat the seeds before planting with fungicides. Thiram 75% or 1: 1 mixture of Captan and Thiram at 3 g per kg of seed is considered quite suitable for the purpose.
Inoculation of seed with a culture of Rhizobium is not only important, but is essential for getting high yields. As soybeans require fairly large amounts of phosphorus and potassium, application of 80 kg P2O5 and 20 kg K2O per hectare is recommended for Indian conditions.
The crop is harvested when about 95% pods have turned brown and most of the leaves have dropped off. This saves losses due to shattering of seeds. While early varieties take 75-110 days to ripen, late ones take 100-200 days. After harvesting, the crop is dried in the sun and then threshed on the threshing floor by beating with sticks. If the crop is raised for forage, it is harvested when the pods are half mature. The average yield of grain varies from 2,000 to 3,500 kg per hectare.
11. Uses of Soybean:
Soybean is a very good food and is a rich source of high-quality protein, which contains almost all the essential amino acids. It also has a high content of edible oil, roughly about 20%. Besides, soybean contains several vitamins and important minerals. It has more of calcium and phosphorus than any cereal, more than even peas and beans. It is also rich in iron, potassium and magnesium.
Green seeds are occasionally used as vegetable. Seeds are also used in preparation of certain confectionaries. Vegetable milk and curd are prepared from soybean. The flour obtained from the seed is very good for patients of diabetes since it contains low carbohydrate and high protein.
The oil obtained from soybean is of semi-drying nature and is used in cooking. Besides, it has many industrial uses, being used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, candles, printing ink, linoleum, soaps and various food products. Soybean meal is suitable for livestock and poultry feed and is also used for making plastics.
12. Harvesting and Threshing of Soybean:
Early varieties usually take 90-120 days to mature, whereas late varieties mature in 140-150 days. There is a thumb rule for harvesting soybean crop i.e., the crop should be harvested after it has fully matured viz. when pods turn black, brown or golden, seed has 17% moisture. The matured crop is harvested manually with the help of sickles. Shattering of grains from pods is not common in most of the commercial varieties.
The harvested crop is kept on threshing floor to dry for a few days. Thereafter, it is threshed by trampling with bullocks or tractor. Grains are separated by winnowing. It can also be threshed by wheat thresher after some adjustments. A moisture content of 13-14% is ideal for threshing with mechanical thresher.
A well-managed crop yields about 2.0-2.5 tonnes grain/ha. Seed should be dried to moisture level of 9-10% for safe storage. It should be stored in moisture proof bags or store bins. Oil to soybean seed crushed is 18%, meal to soybean seed crushed is 73%, hull from soybean seed crushed is 8% and wastage from soybean seed crushed is 1%.
13. Varieties of Soybean:
Some of the important varieties of soybean are:
Bragg. Clark 63, Punjab-1, Lee, Alankar, Improved Pelican, Shilajeet, JS-2, UPSM-19, R-184, etc.
Soybean varieties are classified on the basis of their morphological growth habit or stem termination type, viz., the determinate and indeterminate growth habit. Earlier varieties grown are of indeterminate type. They continue to grow vegetatively several weeks after flowering begins.
Plant height can more than double after floral initiation. In contrast, determinate varieties complete most of their vegetative growth before flowering. Plant height can increase slightly in determinates after onset of flowering, but generally 70 to 80 % of the mature plant height is achieved prior to flowering.
At maturity the indeterminate plant tends to have a relatively even distribution of pods on the stem with a lower frequency toward the tip of the stem. The determinants tend to have a dense cluster of pods on the terminal raceme. Comparing varieties of similar maturity, in-determinants are usually taller than determinates.
The choice of variety is a key factor in profitable soybean production. Many varietal characteristics, such as maturity, lodging, and disease resistance, must be considered when selecting varieties to complement a production area. The yield potential of varieties differs from one agro-climatic region to another.
14. Diseases of Soybean:
Some of the common diseases are:
(i) Bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas phaseoli sojense, which can be controlled by growing resistant varieties and by using copper fungicides.
(ii) Downy mildew caused by Peronospora spp., which can be controlled by growing resistant varieties and by treating seed with Agrosan GN.
(iii) Dry root rot caused by Macrophomina phaseoli, which can be controlled by practising crop rotation and by growing resistant varieties.
(iv) Leaf spot caused by Cercospora sojina, which can be controlled by removing diseased plant debris and by spraying 0.2% Ziram or Zineb.
(v) Pod blight caused by Colletotrichum spp., which can be controlled by the same measures as mentioned for No. (iv) .
(vi) Mosaic caused by virus, which can be controlled by using virus-free seed.
15. Insect Pests of Soybean:
Some of the common insect pests are:
(i) Stem borer beetles (Oberea brevis, Nupserha bicolor), which can be controlled by dusting 10% BHC or spraying 0.04% Monocrotophos.
(ii) Leaf miner (Stomopteryx nerteria), which can be controlled by dusting 5% BHC or 4% Carbaryl.
(iii) Hairy caterpillar (Diacrisia obliqua), which can be controlled by dusting 10% BHC or spraying 0.05% Dichlorvos.
(iv) Lucerne caterpillar (Laphygma exigua), which can be controlled by collecting and destroying eggs and larvae and dusting 10% BHC or spraying 0.05% Dichlorvos or Endosulfan.
(v) Tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura), which can be controlled by dusting 4% Carbaryl or 10% BHC.
(vi) Stem fly (Melanagromyza phaseoli), which can be controlled by clean cultivation, growing resistant varieties and by dusting 4% Carbaryl + 5% DDT or spraying 0.05% Moriocrotophos or Dimethoate when the maggots are inside the leaves.
(vii) Grey weevils (Myllocerus spp.), which can be controlled by dusting 4% Carbaryl or 10% BHC.
(viii) Aphid (Aphis crassivora, Lipaphis crysimi), which can be controlled by clean cultivation, spraying 0.05% Lindane or 0.02%, Phosphamidon or 0.03% Monocrotophos or Dimethoate.
(ix) Jassid (Amarasca spp.), which can be controlled by spraying 0.03% Phosphamidon, Monocrotophos, Dimethoate or Diazinon.
Nitrofen (TOK-25) pre-emergence selective herbicide for all annual grasses and broad leaved weeds @ 1.5-2.0kg a.i./ha in 800-1000 lit. water.
Fluchloralin (Basalin) – Pre-plant incorporation @ 1kg a.i./ha
Metribuzin (Sencor) – Pre emergence herbicide effective against annual grasses and broad leave weeds @ 1kg a.i./ha.