Everything you need to know about fenugreek cultivation, growth and harvest. Learn about:- 1. Introduction to Fenugreek 2. Origin and Distribution to Fenugreek 3. Composition and Uses 4. Climate and Soil Required for Cultivation 5. Sowing Time 6. Manurial Requirement for Cultivating 7. Irrigation Requirement for Cultivation 8. Intercultural Operation 9. Harvesting and Yielding 10. Cultivated Varieties.
- Introduction to Fenugreek
- Origin and Distribution to Fenugreek
- Composition and Uses of Fenugreek
- Climate and Soil Required for Cultivating Fenugreek
- Sowing Time of Fenugreek Seeds
- Manurial Requirement for Fenugreek Cultivating
- Irrigation Requirement for Fenugreek Cultivation
- Intercultural Operation of Fenugreek
- Harvesting and Yielding of Fenugreek
- Cultivated Varieties of Fenugreek
1. Introduction to Fenugreek:
Fenugreek, the multi-use and commercially important spice crop, is extensively grown almost in every part of the country during winter season for its seeds, tender shoots, and fresh leaves, which are light green, pinnately trifoliate, and the flowers are papilionaceous. The pods of fenugreek look like horn, thus, called as the horn of cow or goat. There are two cultivated species of genus Trigonella, viz., foenum-graecum (common fenugreek) and corniculata (Kasuri type fenugreek).
The later one is a slow growing and remains rosette during most of its vegetative growth period. The flowers are yellow and very showy with sickle shaped pods in bunches bearing small size seeds, however, the quick growing common fenugreek produces mostly upright shoots, and plants bear creamy white flowers solitary or paired long slender pods with prominent beak.
The major fenugreek producing countries are India, Argentina, Egypt, Southern France, Morocco, Spain, Turkey, and China, but India enjoys the status of largest producer in the world.
In India, its production is concentrated mainly in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh states. During 2002-03, 1.28 lakh tonne of fenugreek seed was produced from 1.08 lakh hectare area, whereas, 11,250 metric tonne fenugreek seed of worth Rs. 25 crore was exported from India.
2. Origin and Distribution to Fenugreek:
Fenugreek is one of the oldest cultivated spice crops of the world and grown for its medicinal value and forage in India, Western Asia, and Nile valley since remote antiquity. In Egypt, it has been cultivated since 1000 BC and part of Indian diet for over 3000 years.
It is found growing wild in parts of northern India and cultivated all over the subcontinent for its green leaves and seeds. Fenugreek is a native of southeastern Europe and Western Asia. India is also said to be a native of fenugreek.
The nutritional significance of fenugreek is well-recognized world over as a vital source of essential minerals, vitamins and dietary fibers. The fenugreek green leaves supply 35 calories and contain moisture 86.1%, protein 4.4%, fat 0.9%, fibre 1.1%, other carbohydrates 6.0%, and ash 1.5%.
In addition, the fenugreek green leaves are rich in vitamins and contain carotene content 2.34 mg, thiamine 0.04 mg, riboflavin 0.31 mg, nicotinic acid 0.8 mg, and vitamin C 52.0 mg/ 100 g edible portion.
Fenugreek leaves also contain aliphatic and aromatic secondary amines about 296 and 59 μg per gram dry weight, respectively. The green leaves are also known to have sulfur containing amino acids. According to Rowland et al. (1966), the fenugreek leaves on an average contain vitamin C 43.10 mg/100 g fresh edible portion, however, after boiling in water or steaming and then frying, the lose of this vitamin was estimated 10.8 and 7.4%, respectively.
Fenugreek seeds are rich in protein, minerals, especially iron, calcium, vitamins, particularly vitamin A, C and B2 and contain substances like volatile oil, fixed oil, cellulose, starch, sugars, alkaloids, and enzymes. The volatile oil content of seed is low but it is extremely odoriferous. The fixed oil content averages 7.6% and has a very bitter taste. The seeds of fenugreek are also known to have steroidal compounds fenugreekine, trigonelline, diosgenin, choline, and malonic acid.
The bitter taste in seeds as well as in leaves is due to the presence of alkaloids such as trigonelline and choline. Diosgenin has been identified as the major steroid sapogenin in the leaves of Trigonella foenum- graecum along with smaller amounts of tigogenin and gitogenin. The proximate principles and mineral composition of fenugreek leaves are given in Table 22.1.
Every part of this multipurpose crop is useful and utilized in one or the other form as food, fodder, medicine, and cosmetics. Its green fresh leaves and tender immature pods are used as green cooked vegetable, and sun dried leaves, which are having aromatic qualities, are used as spice for seasoning a variety of foods in off-season. It makes the food more savory and provides major calorie and other nutritional benefits. Relatively a small quantity of it gives zest to foods without producing any adverse effects.
The palatability of fenugreek leaves is improved with steaming and with addition of seasoning rather than with boiling or frying. The role of its seeds in food preservation, reducing spoilage and disguising or over powering the odor ant taste of spoiling foods may also not be over looked. In addition, the seeds of fenugreek are also used in curry powders, perfumery, and pickles. Being odoriferous, the dry seeds and their powder are used as condiment/flavoring agent and for medicinal purposes.
The seeds are also used for making dye and extraction of alkaloids or steroids. In certain parts, the green herbage as well as the seeds of fenugreek along with other green or dry fodder is usually fed to the cattle. It is recognized well as commercial uses in syrups, pickles, baked foods, condiments, chewing gums, icings, and cooked food seasonings. The fenugreek leaves and seeds have use in cosmetics and hair conditioning. In Punjab, dried plants are added to store grains as insect repellent.
Fenugreek is one of the few spices that are used extensively for medicinal purposes owing to its hypoglycemic and hypocholestremic properties. The seeds have the good therapeutic properties against digestive disorders, diabetes and have the anti-fertility and diuretic actions too. It prevents constipation, removes indigestion, stimulates spleen and liver, and is appetizing.
Usually, the seeds are also used in Ayurvedic system as carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic, tonic and aphrodisiac and customarily used for the treatment of colic, flatulence, dysentery, diarrhea, dyspepsia with loss of appetite, chronic cough, dropsy, rickets, gout and are good for the elimination of bad breath and body odor. It is believed that regular intake of fenugreek seed reduces the level of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in blood.
Fenugreek is known to possess galactagogue properties, and thus, Indian women consume the seeds for its power to promote lactation. Fenugreek seeds substantially contain steroid diosgenin (0.40-1.26%), which is used as a starting material in the syntheses of sex hormones as stimulant and contraceptive. Fenugreek also helps to combat dandruff and is a cure for baldness. The ground powder mixed with cottonseed is fed to cows and buffalos for increasing the flow of milk.
4. Climate and Soil Required for Cultivating Fenugreek:
Fenugreek performs well in province of low to moderate rainfall but cannot withstand heavy rainfall. Continuous moist and cloudy weather invites insect-pests and a number of diseases. The crop requires cool climate for its better growth and is capable of tolerating frost and freezing weather for a short period.
A cool growing season without extremes of temperature is favorable for best development. Dry weather during crop maturity is essential for harvesting better seed yield. Having wider adaptability, the crop can be grown successfully both in tropical and temperate regions up to an altitude of 2000 m above mean sea level.
Fenugreek is well adapted to a wide range of soils but grow best on well-drained loamy soils. Organic matter rich clay-loam soils may also be used provided adequate drainage facilities are available. However, the crop does not thrive best in sandy or gravely soils. In rain fed areas, black cotton soils are best suited for its successful cultivation.
Although the crop is tolerant to salinity but always gives higher yield with better quality of leaves in neutral soils having a pH range from 6.0 to 7.0 hence, its cultivation should usually be avoided in problematic soils, i.e., saline, alkaline and acidic one.
5. Sowing Time of Fenugreek Seeds:
Fenugreek, being cool season crop, is sown in the month of October to November in northern plains, whereas, in hilly tracts, it is sown from March to May, depending on altitude. In areas with mild climate, fenugreek for fresh greens may be grown round the year except extreme hot months of summer and rainy season, hence, in southern states of India, particularly Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, fenugreek is sown twice, once in Rabi (September-December) and again in Kharif season (June-July).
Kasuri type varieties require preferably extra cool weather for longer duration, and thus, they are raised more successfully in northern states during winters than the southern states of India. For a continuous supply of leaves, crop can be sown at weekly intervals. For seed crop, the sowing time is so adjusted that the pod development and seed maturity phase may coincide with a dry and rain free period.
According to Singh and Nand (1984), the optimum time for the sowing of fenugreek is between mid of October to the mid of November under Uttar Pradesh conditions, however, sowing on 15th October and 7th November gave good growth and the highest seed yield, which was adversely affected with the delay in sowing in Rajasthan. In Haryana, Baswana and Pandita (1989) compared different dates of sowing and found that the crop sown on 5th October gave maximum plant growth and seed yield.
In another report from Hisar, the maximum seed yield was obtained from the crop sown on 1st December followed by the crops sown on 16th November and 16th December, whereas, Lal et al. (2003) obtained maximum returns with three cuttings from the crop sown on 15th November in Haryana. In Punjab, the highest seed yield was obtained when the crop was sown between last week of October and first week of November.
In mid hill- of Himachal Pardesh, Korla and Saini (2003) found 21st September as the best sowing time for getting higher greens fresh yield. Under conditions of Karnataka, Halesh et al. (1998) observed that the crop sown between 1st and 15th July recorded higher seed yield of 16- 23 q/ha during Kharif season.
The quantity of seed required for the sowing of unit area depends on the purpose for which the crop is sown. In order to sow one-hectare area, about 20-25 kg seed of common fenugreek and 10-12 kg of Kasuri fenugreek type is required. Randhawa et al. (1996) recommended a seed rate of 30 kg/ha for receiving good seed yield, however, Mavai et al. (2000) suggested a seed rate of 20 kg/ha for getting higher seed yield.
The seeds germinate in 7-10 days, depending on sowing depth and soil temperature, but under a condition of favorable temperature and adequate moisture, the seeds germinate in 5-7 days in common fenugreek whereas Kasuri fenugreek germinates late by another 3-5 days.
Germination is usually delayed, if the temperature is too low, soil moisture is inadequate, sowing depth is more than 2 cm, or there is any obstacle in way of newly sprouts emerging out of the soil, i.e., formation of hard soil crust due to unexpected rain follows sowing may impede early emergence. Soaking of seeds prior to sowing in water or 50-100 ppm solution of cycocel or 0.6% EMS for 8-10 hours improves germination and survival of seedlings, and thereby, enhancing their growth.
Fenugreek, being legume crop, fixes nitrogen about 283 kg per hectare per year from atmosphere to the soil. The role of Rhizobium in fenugreek production is well established, and inoculation of seed before sowing has proved beneficial in getting higher seed yield since field inoculation with Rhizobium melilotii bacterium is very useful in absorbing nitrogen from the atmosphere and fixing it into the soil.
Seeds should also be inoculated with Rhizobium culture prior to sowing, especially when the crop is sown in new field as the symbiotic nitrogen fixation takes place more effectively if an interrelationship is established between a particular legume and a specific Rhizobium strain. The genetic constitution of legume and Rhizobium as well determines the characteristic nodulation and degree of nitrogen fixation.
Crop growth and yield improvement in legume crops due to Rhizobium inoculation have been reported by Bajpai et al. (1974) and Wange (1990). Fenugreek by the use of other bio-inoculants such as Azospirillum or Azotobactor in combination with sheep manure (5 t/ha) gave a seed yield of about 11 q/ha under organic production system.
Fenugreek is sexually propagated crop and sown either in lines or by broadcasting seeds in well- prepared flat seedbeds and raking the bed surface prudently, however, sowing in lines is comparatively better than the broadcasting method since it facilitates the intercultural operations, like hoeing and weeding, and also makes the cutting of leaves very easy.
Sometimes, line sowing becomes too essential when moisture in soil is scarce, while broadcasting method of sowing seeds is successful only when the field is having sufficient soil moisture at the time of sowing.
For fresh greens, seeds are usually sown sparsely in 15-20 cm apart shallow furrows and for seed crop 25- 30 cm apart and later the plants are thinned to a spacing of 10-15 cm within lines. Although the depth of sowing seeds depends on soil type and soil moisture at the time of sowing, but being small size, the seeds of common fenugreek are usually sown at a depth of 2-3 cm and Kasuri fenugreek at 1.0-1.5 cm.
Seed yield of fenugreek increased when sown at closer row spacing of 15 cm as reported by Singh and Nand (1984), whereas, Bhati (1988) reported that plant height and primary branches in fenugreek were not influenced by row spacing but closer row spacing of 20 and 30 cm gave significantly higher seed yield than 40 cm row spacing.
Baswana and Pandita (1989) reported that the row spacing failed to influence the plant height, while fenugreek grown in rows 20 cm apart gave higher yield than 30 or 40 cm row spacing under Haryana agro-climatic conditions.
Pandita and Randhawa (1996) obtained highest fenugreek seed yield at a plant spacing of 20 cm and without taking greens cutting. Randhawa et al. (1996) recommended a row-to-row spacing of 22.5 cm for receiving good seed yield. In a study of leaf cutting management in Gujarat, Mehta et al. (1995) obtained the highest seed yield (16.8 q/ha) with no greens cutting followed by 10.42 q/ha seed yield with one leaf cutting at row to row spacing of 20 cm.
6. Manurial Requirement for Fenugreek Cultivating:
Fenugreek is though legume crop shows very good response to both macro- and micronutrients, and removes nitrogen 10 kg, phosphorus 3.5 kg, potash 8.2 kg, calcium 1.4 kg, magnesium 1.8 kg, iron 123 g, manganese 14 g, zinc 39 g and copper 12 g/ha, therefore, to maintain a steady state of productivity, besides macronutrients, micronutrients should also be included in the application schedule.
Application of farmyard manure 15 t/ha and phosphorous 40 kg/ha had a beneficial effect on the enhancement of vegetative growth and resulted in higher dry matter production of fenugreek.
In addition to incorporation of well-composted farmyard manure 15-20 t/ha, the entire fertilizer dose of nitrogen 25 kg, phosphorus 25 kg, and potash 30 kg/ha should be applied as basal dose at the time of land preparation. The response of fenugreek to nitrogen is observed in the form of increased number of pods per plant and grain yield up to a nitrogen level of 45 kg/ ha. Positive effect of phosphorus on grain yield is also observed.
The biomass production is very high with higher doses of organic matter and rock phosphate in combination with lead and iron. Application of 1.0 t/ha of neem cake also proves to be beneficial. Two foliar sprays of urea (1%) about 45 and 60 days after sowing gave better and economic greens yield.
The crop gives very high foliage yield, if nitrogen is applied @ 20-30 kg/ha as side dressing after each cutting and followed by a light irrigation. Similarly, Kaswan et al. (1995) noticed positive response of nitrogen application for enhancing the foliage yield of fenugreek, however, Randhawa et al. (1996) found no fenugreek response to nitrogen and phosphorus application under agro-climatic conditions of Punjab.
Halesh et al. (1998) observed good plant growth and high seed yield (22.85 q/ha) with an application of nitrogen 60 kg and phosphorous 90 kg/ha at Bangalore, on the contrary, very high nitrogen rates delayed flowering and prolonged crop duration. Mavai et al. (2000) recorded maximum biological yield, significantly high seed yield and harvest index with the application of nitrogen 20 kg and phosphorus 75 kg/ha in Haryana and Patel et al. (1991) also obtained the similar results in Gujarat.
7. Irrigation Requirement for Fenugreek Cultivation:
Fenugreek, primarily being an irrigated crop, requires light irrigation al frequent interval for its quick growth but can also be cultivated under rain fed conditions in certain parts of the country.
To ensure satisfactory germination the crop is usually sown in fields having plenty of soil moisture and the irrigation is not applied unless the seedlings attain 2-4 true leaves, however, if the initial moisture in the field at sowing is inadequate, a light irrigation should be applied very soon after sowing and should be followed by another light irrigation on third day to facilitate rapid and uniform germination.
Subsequent irrigations are given at 7 to 10 days interval, depending on soil type, season, rainfall, and other temporary weather conditions.
In general, frequent and light irrigations are essential for quick foliage growth, and as a thumb rule, each cutting should be followed by a light irrigation. Maintenance of optimal moisture is essential to prevent blossom and pod drop since flowering and seed setting are the critical stages for irrigation requirement. Too much irrigation is also as harmful as the scarcity of moisture, since excessive moisture in any form and at any stage increases the incidence of root rot and powdery mildew.
Under Chhattisgarh conditions, Lakpale et al. (2004) obtained maximum seed yield from fenugreek when five irrigations were applied at IW/CPE ratio of 0.8, however, under All India Coordinated Research Project application of seven irrigations at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio was found suitable as a general recommendation for getting higher production. Sprinkler irrigation with IW/ CPE ratio of 0.75 was found optimum for Gujarat.
8. Intercultural Operation of Fenugreek:
Fenugreek, being leguminous crop, needs proper soil aeration for normal development of root system, thus, hoeing and weeding during early stages of plant growth are very essential to make the soil loose around the roots and to control the weeds, since weeds due to slow growth of fenugreek seedlings may pose problem in initial stages, however, in later stages, when the crop canopy is fully developed, weeding is not at all required as the crop itself suppresses the weeds.
In fenugreek cv. Pusa Early Bunching, Tripathi and Singh (1993) estimated 14.2% yield reduction due to weed competition during first 30 days after sowing (DAS) and 69% during entire cropping season. Weeds emerging 30 DAS caused a very little reduction in yield and there was no significant gain in increasing weed free period beyond 30 days, thus, first 30 days were identified as a critical period with respect to crop weed competition in fenugreek.
In trial on chemical weed control, Ramana et al. (1994) found that pre-plant application of fluchloralin at 1.12 kg/ha gave a 9.5 fold reduction in weeds dry mater production and increased seed yield.
Pre emergence application of pendimethalin 1.25 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding has been reported to cause significant reduction in weed population and weed dry matter and has contributed to achieve maximum seed yield, however, in one report it is mentioned that all the pendimethalin treatments caused severe phytotoxicity to the fenugreek crop, showing scorching of leaves, rosetting and stunting of plants, and 68-70% mortality of germinating seeds.
Usually, thinning is not practiced in fenugreek crop exclusively grown for fresh green leaves. However, for seed crop it is necessary to maintain proper spacing between lines and plants within rows. In line-sown seed crop, the plants 20-30 days after sowing as and when they are large enough to handle, are thinned to a spacing of 10-15 cm within the row.
Similarly, the plants should be thinned to a suitable spacing to avoid competition in broadcasted crop. Retaining one to two plants per hill the surplus plants are uprooted by pulling out.
This operation is soon followed by top dressing with a small quantity of nitrogen and a light irrigation to set the disturbed soil and seedling roots. In crop grown for fresh green leaves the young shoots are nipped off 10-30 days after sowing at a height of 4-5 cm from the ground level to increase the number of branches.
Studies show that the use of plant growth substances considerably improves the plant growth and quality of seeds in fenugreek. Soaking seeds in 50-100 ppm cycocel solution improves germination and enhances seedling growth. Sahu et al. (2004) recorded enhancement in seed yield when GA3 50 ppm and ethrel 75 ppm were applied at 30 and 45 days, respectively as foliar spray.
Regulatory role of plant growth substances (GA3 and IAA) in the synthesis of steroids in fenugreek has been reported by Jain et al. (1988). The plant growth substances IAA, GA3 and ethephon were tried by Ortuno et al. (1999) and found that seed treatment with GA3 increased diosgenin content 19-43% in 30 days old plants and 77% on whole plant basis in 15 days, however, the treatment with 50 ppm ethephon reduced the diosgenin content by 68% in 30 days old plants.
Application of 10 ppm NAA has been reported to increase diosgenin content in fenugreek seeds. Alhadi et al. (1998) noticed that the use of GA3 under water deficit conditions caused positive changes in growth as well as in some physiological and biochemical parameters.
9. Harvesting and Yielding of Fenugreek:
The common fenugreek becomes ready for cutting fresh green leaves and young shoots in about 20 days after sowing, and Kasuri type fenugreek takes 25-30 days after sowing to be ready for cuttings, while subsequent cuttings may be taken at an interval of 15-20 days. The crop when grown for dual-purpose after taking one cutting, which does not affect the seed yield, is left for seed production. The crop after harvest is bunched and marketed.
The cutting is usually done with sharp knife by leaving stubs 3-4 cm above ground level and after taking 4-5 cuttings the crop grown exclusively for green leaves is uprooted. Common fenugreek is harvested by clipping young shoots from the base of plants, which are allowed to grow further and their tops are nipped periodically until flowering. Fenugreek leaves develop a bitter taste if not harvested timely.
Depending upon variety and season of growing the seed crop takes about 80-165 days from sowing to harvesting. The entire plant is either pulled out or cut from the base with sickle when 70% of the pods turn yellow, and made into small bundles for drying them in sun. Seeds are separated by beating with stick and winnowing. The seed is cleaned and sun dried before packing in Jute bags containing polyethylene lining.
Keeping in view the requirement of targeted market, the post-harvest operations are advised to follow suitably for green leaves as vegetable, dehydrated leaves and seeds. In case of fresh greens, the edible portion is the tender leaves and stem, which are cut to a length of about 7-10 cm.
After harvesting, the yellow, diseased, and damaged leaves are trimmed off, and thereby, healthy and disease free leaves are tied into small bunches for the convenience in handling and marketing.
Since the dried leaves can be stored for one year for further use in off-season, the fenugreek leaves are sun-dried or dehydrated in a suitable dehydrator, however, during dehydration, chlorophyll is oxidized and ascorbic acid is lost, so as to retain green color of leaves, blanching in boiling water (80°C) for 3-6 minutes and treatment with 0.2% sodium meta-bisulphate can be practiced.
Green leaves are highly perishable in nature, thus, they are marketed soon after harvesting. However, well-dried leaves can be stored for about 10-12 months. The fresh green leaves can be stored only for about 24 hours after harvesting under ambient room conditions.
However, in cold stores at 0°C temperature and 90-95% relative humidity the storage period can be extended upto 10 days. The properly cleaned fenugreek seeds are packed in gunny bags lined with polythene paper and stored with an initial moisture level of 7-8% and at an equilibrium relative humidity of 40%.
The fenugreek yield depends upon the variety used, location and season of growing since Kohli et al. (1988) noticed significant variability for green fodder, and seed yield. Usually, the cultivars yielding higher grain yield tend to produce low fresh green leaf yield.
Under irrigated conditions, the common type fenugreek varieties normally give a fresh green leaf and seed yield of 70-80 and 15-20 q/ha, respectively, and Kasuri type 80-100 q green leaves per hectare, however, higher yield can further be expected under good management practices.
Kasuri type fenugreek varieties give higher yield due to more cuttings in comparison to common fenugreek. Kaswan et al. (1994) obtained maximum returns from fenugreek cv. Pusa Early Bunching with two leaf cuttings taken at 60 and 80 days after sowing.
10. Cultivated Varieties of Fenugreek:
The genus Trigonella is having two species foenum-graecum (common fenugreek) and corniculata (Kasuri fenugreek), which are entirely different in their seed size, growth and development habits, taste and purpose of use too.
Taking one or two cutting of leaf for fresh market, and then, allowing the crop for seed production usually decreased the seed yield, however, world over there is a great need of dual purpose varieties that can give satisfactory seed yield after taking greens cutting.
The description of some of the important cultivated varieties developed by various State Agricultural Universities and Research Centres are given as under:
1. Pusa Early Bunching:
A variety developed at IARI, New Delhi through selection is quick growing with upright shoots and is suitable for taking 2-3 leaf cuttings. It is a high yielding variety with bold seeds. An average seed yield of 12-15 q/ha can be obtained in crop duration of 156 days.
A variety developed at Rajasthan Agricultural University SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner through pure-line selection from a local collection is moderately resistant to root rot and tolerant to powdery mildew disease. The plants are semi-erect, tall, and moderately branched. The bold and yellow-colored seeds contain 21.0% protein. An average grain yield of 15 q/ha can be obtained over crop duration of 140-150 days.
A variety developed at Rajasthan Agricultural University through pure-line selection from Jodhpur local is moderately resistant to powdery mildew disease and is suitable for cultivation in heavier soils of Chittor, Bhilwara, Jhalawar and Jodhpur in Rajasthan. The grains of this cultivar are bold with typical yellow colour and yields 16 q/ha seed in crop duration of 140-150 days.
A variety developed at Rajendra Agricultural University Regional Research Station of, (Dholi) Bihar through mass selection from Raghunathpur germplasm is moderately resistant to powdery mildew, caterpillar, and aphids and suitable for growing as a pure crop or as an intercrop. The plants are medium tall and bushy with medium-sized golden yellow seeds that contain around 9.5% protein. This variety produces an average seed yield of 12-14 q/ha in total crop duration of 120 days.
A variety developed at N.G. Ranga University of Agriculture and Technology, Regional Agricultural Research Station Lam (Guntur) Andhra Pradesh through a selection from germplasm collected from Madhya Pradesh is tolerant to root rot, powdery mildew, caterpillars, and aphids.
The plants are bushy, green with medium sized golden yellow seeds that contain 5.3% protein. The greens yield is around 100-120 q/ha under irrigated conditions. The selection is capable of yielding 7.4 quintals of grain per hectare in 90 days crop duration.
The variety has been developed at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar through pure-line selection from local germplasm and identified for release in 1993. The plants are bushy, semi- – erect with bold yellow attractive grains (13-15 g/1000 grains). It is moderately resistant to leaf spot and root rot complex of diseases. It matures in 140-150 days and produces an average seed yield of 19.0 quintal per hectare.
A quick growing dual-purpose high yielding early variety developed at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar is resistant to Cercospora leaf spot and moderately resistant to powdery mildew. Adopting improved package of practices on an average a seed yield of 16 q/ha can be obtained.
A quick growing high yielding variety resistant to downy mildew and moderately resistant to powdery mildew developed at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar is suitable for seed purpose. The seeds are bold with tan green seed coat. This variety with medium maturity produces on an average a seed yield of 20 quintal per hectare.
A quick growing dual-purpose variety resistant to powdery mildew and moderately resistant to downy mildew developed at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar is suitable for cultivation under irrigated as well as rain fed conditions. Its average seed yield is 19 quintal per hectare under irrigated conditions.
A dual-purpose variety developed at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore is most suitable for intercropping and relay cropping because of short-duration and dwarf growing habit. The seeds contain 20-22% protein, while the leaves contain 15.0% protein. The leaf greens yield is 90 q/ha and a grain yield of 6.8 q/ha in crop duration of 85-90 days.
A variety developed at National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer through a pure line- selection from local germplasm bears broad leaves with less bitterness. The plants of this variety are medium in height.
The crop grown exclusively for leaf purpose gives a yield of 76 q/ha from 3 cuttings. The seeds with less bitterness are bold in large pods of 8 mm size. The number of seeds per pod ranges from 17 to 20 with 1000 seed weight of 17-21 g. Its average seed yield is 20.7 q/ha within a crop duration of 137 days.
The plants of this variety are medium in height and developed at National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer through a pure line selection from local germplasm bears leaves with more bitterness. The crop grown exclusively for leaf purpose gives a yield of 72 q/ha from 3 cuttings.
The seeds with more bitterness are small in pods of 4 mm size. The number of seeds per pod ranges from 16 to 18. An average seed yield of 18.1 q/ha can be obtained in crop duration of 138 days.
A late flowering variety with rosette type leaves developed at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi gives 5-6 cuttings. It is heavy yielder of green leaves with special fragrance. The leaves are broad, succulent, and rich in vitamin C. The crop grown exclusively for fresh green leaves produces a greens yield of 80 quintal and a seed yield of 6-7 quintal per hectare.
Other Kasuri type local varieties are Kasuri methi, Nagauri Methi, Marwari methi and Champa methi.