In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Existing Problems Limiting Animal Husbandry and Dairying 2. WTO in Relation to Livestock Sector 3. Measures to Sustain Economy from Animal Husbandry and Dairying 4. Animal Health Technologies Developed at IVRI, IZATNAGAR, and India 5. Constraints of Livestock Sector 6. Future Strategies of Animal Husbandry 7. Quality Standards of Livestock Products 8. Conclusion.
Existing Problems Limiting Animal Husbandry and Dairying:
Opportunities for small to medium-scale commercial animal production reflect global patterns of urbanization, economic development and globalization. These changes provide chances for farmers to move from subsistence production to market oriented production. In the mature, developed economies, food costs are a relatively small percentage of disposable income as food security has been essentially achieved, and per capita consumption of animal product is stable or declining. In these economies, issues of food quality, food safety and respect for animal welfare and the environment are gaining importance. Farmers in developing nations must also address these issues if they aspire to market products in the developed nations.
Twenty-three per cent of the world’s population living in developed countries presently consumes three to four times meat and fish and five to six times milk per capita than those in developing countries. A change has, however, occurred in the last few decades leading to increase in consumption of animal products in developing countries. From the early 1970s to the mid-1990s, consumption in developed countries has grown by 70 million metric tons.
In value and caloric terms, meat consumption in developing countries increased by more than three times the increase in developed countries. Milk consumption in the developing world is increased by more than twice as much as milk consumption in the developed world in terms of quantity, money value and calories. The consumption of food of animal origin, however, is still small. Income increase would make people more conscious for consuming more of these items resulting in improved overall nutrition.
WTO in Relation to Livestock Sector:
The livestock sector as an industry was recognized after several rounds of negotiations in the Uruguay Round (1986-1994) of General Agreement on trade and Tariffs (GATT). At present, WTO has about 6 agreements directly related to agriculture. These include Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), Agreement on Agriculture (AOA), Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS), Technical Barriers to Trade, Anti-dumping, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures and Safeguards.
The basis and objective of the WTO is to establish a level and market oriented trading system through progressive reduction in agricultural support. The major component of the market access under WTO directly related to livestock sector is reduction in tariff and synchronization of the non-tariff barriers, reduction of government subsidies and opening and access to the market.
With the constitution of WTO the whole world is going to be single market with all type of products across the border. To minimize the probability of disguised restrictions on international trade, two agreements are in WTO regime. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).
The ministerial conference of WTO at Doha from 9-14 November 2001 highlighted the continued recognition of special and differential treatment for the developing countries and of food security and rural development of domestic support. From Indian perspective, it was felt that the progressive reforms in agriculture would require elimination of large-scale domestic support and other trade distorting subsidies.
It would also require the removal of all unfair barriers facing farm exports of the developing countries. The large rural populations in developing countries are critically dependent on agriculture there is a need to adequately provide for their food and livelihood security. It is particularly important that negotiations should be held for extending geographical indications to products. Also there should not be any misappropriation of the biological and genetic resources and traditional knowledge of the developing countries. This could have far reaching implications on the availability of affordable plant-based medicines.
The major SPS concern for India includes the quality and safety of daily and meat products. It is imperative that the principle of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems, Code of practices on good animal feed, good hygienic practices (GHP) and good manufacturing practices (GMP) and cold chain system are followed.
India should also put in place prevention of infectious and contagious diseases in Animals Act and take effective measures to eradicate “A” category disease as notified by OIE. For the hygienic practices for milk production, Codex standards are required not only for the livestock product for export conform to stipulated safety and suitability standards but also that the raw milk used in the manufacture of the products is produced using GHP and GMPs.
Extensive extension programmes should be implemented to ensure this. The maximum permissible levels of aflatoxins, heavy metals, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, etc. are increasingly becoming areas of major safety concerns. SPS measures permit members to adopt, if necessary, a higher level of protection based on risk assessment. Better physical infrastructure for reference laboratories for monitoring and surveillance of the contaminants and their levels, strengthening of information systems for risk analysis are needed.
The quality of all the livestock products, raw or processed meat for export has to improve to meet the international standards. For this, appropriate quality control measures, modern processing and infrastructure facilities should be developed. In order to become significant player in the world market, it is necessary to ensure a sizeable market surplus of exportable farm products.
Measures to Sustain Economy from Animal Husbandry and Dairying:
Animal husbandly and dairying needs organisation in more efficient way so as to obtains maximum production. Governments, NGOs and SHGs should take initiative in this direction and promote establishment of cooperative dairy farms, piggery, poultry farms, goat farms and sheep farms. In addition, non-convention animal rearing such as rabbit, ducks, turkey, etc., should also be promoted.
Special attention should be paid for the development of micro-enterprises for value addition of these livestock products that will not only fetch more profit but also help increase our export share of livestock products in the world. Government has taken initiation in this direction by giving loans and subsidies for such establishments. However, much remains undone.
The quality of all livestock products, raw or processed meat for export has to be improved to meet the international standards. For this, appropriate quality control measures, modern processing and infrastructure facilities should be developed. In order to become a significant player in the world market, it is necessary to ensure a sizeable market surplus of the exportable farm products.
The productivity growth should also be higher in order to offset the effect of cost reducing technological innovation expected to be adopted by the developed nations. It will also help in reducing the problem of inflation on cost production. In addition, the information system needs to be strengthened. The various government agencies involved in export and import should be under one umbrella.
Animal Health Technologies Developed at IVRI, IZATNAGAR, and India:
Indian Veterinary Research Institute is a premier veterinary research organization of South East Asia founded in 1889. The Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) is perhaps the only organization in South-East Asia, where integrated training and research facilities in livestock health, production, technology and extension is existing simultaneously under one umbrella.
The remarkable contribution of this institute has helped the country to make significant progress in the field of animal health and production. The major landmark achievement of the institute was the development of Rinderpest vaccine, through which this deadly disease of livestock was eradicated from the country.
This institute is further well known all over the world for its impressive contribution in the various aspects of livestock and poultry health and production technology. This institute is mainly aimed at conducting research, providing postgraduate education and transfer of technology in all areas of animal sciences. Further it is also acting as a national referral centre for veterinary type cultures, disease diagnosis, biological and immuno-diagnostics, etc.
A major focus of research at this institute has been the development of sensitive and specific diagnostics and immunoprophylactics. Till now the institute has developed 44 immunobiologicals against many bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases of economic importance such as HS, FMD, swine fever, PPR, enterotoxaemia, sheep pox, goat pox, buffalo pox, anthrax, black quarter, etc. Institute has patented/registered for patent 40 technologies and commercialized 5 technologies to commercial houses.
Through a number of national and international research projects, the institute is constantly generating newer technologies in the field of animal health and production. The technology developed by the institute and its researchers have been given recognitions and awards at various national and international level. The institute has generated a large number of vaccines, diagnostics, immunobiologicals and other animal production technologies, which are being used by the livestock owners and field veterinary practitioners.
These technologies have improved livestock health and production potential to a large extent and the livestock mortality has drastically reduced. A large number of the technologies have been developed by IVRI, which have already been transferred to the farmers and end users in the past years.
Constraints of Livestock Sector:
i. Unorganized Production:
Although the milk industry under organized sector has fast growth in the last three decades, it handles only about 30-35% of the milk marketed whereas 65-70% of the market share is still in the hands of unorganized sector. Innumerable vendors, small processors, merchants, manufacturers and retailers of indigenous milk products characterise the unorganized sector. Time has come to bring about structural changes in the unorganized sector.
ii. Inadequacy of Fodder Availability:
The inadequacy in fodder availability, both dry and green, has been one of the major problems in development of animal husbandry and dairying sector. It is estimated that during years 2000, the availability of fodder remained in short supply by about 47%. The shortage remained deficit that of dry fodder by 22%.
Due to the extensive use of combine harvesters, especially in states like Punjab and Haryana, a large portion of the paddy and wheat straw is either left and burnt or becomes unfit for fodder purpose. In the coming years, the use of machinery is projected to increase which will further affect the availability of crop residues. Quality fodder seeds are a major constraint for fodder production.
iii. Inadequate Market Facility:
India has over 2000 markets where livestock are traded which are not developed on scientific lines. Market facilities are generally inadequate and if available are poorly maintained. Wholesale marketing margins amount to about 30% of the consumer price. Singh et al. (2004) in his study on livestock economy in UP was found that market for livestock products was major constraints of milk producers.
iv. Inadequate Disease Prevention Measures:
In 1977, FAO/IAEA recommended accreditation of veterinary laboratories for disease diagnosis and for surveillance data to control disease. In spite of the fact, India controlled African horse sickness, Equine influenza and Equine infectious anemia and recently Rinderpest, but international authorities have not yet accepted our assessment that India is free from disease.
In order to bring transparency, OIE certification is becoming mandatory with authenticated data to support our claim for the freedom from the diseases. Use of quality assured diagnostic system, surveillance and monitoring would assist regional or national control and eradication programme of diseases.
Presently, India is producing 21 viral, 13 bacterial and 1 protozoal vaccine and 11 diagnostic reagents. These immunobiologicals are being produced in bout 27 biological production units. Most of the biological produced in the state unit lack consistency for quality products and suffer from appropriate technical inputs and inspection system.
v. Inadequate Credit Facilities and Financial Supports:
Public sector lending in livestock sector is abysmally low and such inadequate credit support leads to poor capital formation. The livestock farmers are mainly dependent on the financial intermediaries and bearing a higher interest rate. The share of animal husbandry and dairying sector was received only 5.7% of total ground level credit offered through NABARD for agricultural and allied sectors during 1999-2000, and this support is given in the form of only term loan to the tune of Rs.2366 crore. No production credit or short-term credit was given to this sector. The concept of working capital loan as has been in operation for small-scale sector is not offered the livestock sector.
vi. Poor Livestock Health Services:
In most of states, livestock health services are facing problems due to negligence of state government. Due to inadequate finance support, most of veterinary hospitals and dispensaries have very poor infrastructure and human resources. Though the Veterinary Council of India (VCI) recommended one veterinarian per 5000 animal populations, but it was not at all implemented in most of states. Even in the states like Maharashtra where milk industry has developed well, the ratio of veterinarian to animal population is nearly 1:10000-15000, which is far wide than the recommended level.
vii. Lack of Product Processing Facilities:
Though in milk sector, India have made some progress in processing the milk into milk products, but it still not up to the mark and most of milk is sold as raw milk in open market without any processing and poor hygienic conditions. Regarding the meat at present in India has only 3600 slaughter houses out of these only 2700 registered. The concept of frozen meat transport is not all developed in India.
viii. Heavy Subsidies in the Developed Countries:
Since January 1995, the agreements of WTO, quantitative restrictions have been removed on the export and import of live animals and animal products including milk. Import tariff by and large for the range animal products is bound at 100%. The problem Indian farmers facing with respect to livestock products are not as much the low tariff rates but the heavy subsidies given to farmers in the develop countries especially the EEC countries who have huge surpluses to dispose off, which create unhealthy competition in the world market. India does not provide any product specific subsidy to any livestock product.
ix. Technical Barriers:
Raising the level of quality standards to internationally competitive levels is one of the major challenges. There are technical barriers, however, as the phytosanitary measures, which need to be overcome by maintaining hygienic conditions and preventing the incidence of animal diseases. Failure to enforce strict implementation of sanitary and hygienic measures and to adopt improvements in the slaughter and processing of animal has stood in the way of harnessing the export potential of livestock product sector particularly the quality conscious.
Focus and Strategy in Tenth Plan:
Animal husbandry and dairying will receive high priority in the efforts for generating wealth and employment, increasing the availability of animal protein in the food basket and for generating exportable surpluses.
The overall focus will be on four broad pillars, viz.:
i. Removing a policy distortion that is hindering the natural growth of livestock production;
ii. Building participatory institutions of collective action for small-scale farmers that allow them to get vertically integrated with livestock processors and input suppliers;
iii. Creating an environment in which farmers will increase investment in ways that will improve productivity in the livestock sector; and
iv. Promoting effective regulatory institutions to deal with the threat of environmental and health crises stemming from livestock. The 10th 5-year plan target for milk production is set at 108.4 mt envisaging an annual growth rate of 6%. Egg and wool production targets are set at 43.4 billion numbers and 63.7 million kg, respectively. The allocation for animal husbandry, dairying and fishery is Rs.2500 crores during the 10th plan.
Future Strategies of Animal Husbandry:
i. Organization of Production System:
There is an urgent need to give a fillip for the organized production of various livestock products. Government shall endeavour to provide fiscal and policy support to help development of small scale sector dairies so that more unorganized sector is brought under the ambit of cooperative/private organized sector and quality assurance programmes. Further use of information technology in village dairy cooperative societies would enable the farmers to capitalize on opportunities and protect them from exploitation.
ii. Region Specific Approach:
Within the country, there are wide variations in productivity levels. Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh may have attained productivity levels of the world standard. But other regions are way behind. Similarly, pig husbandry is the most important activity in the North Eastern region inhabited by strong consumer base of tribal people.
Though, this region has a substantial pig population, which constitutes around 25% of the-country’s pig population, but bulk of the population, however, is indigenous type whose growth and productivity is very low.
Therefore, region-specific strategies should be adopted to realize the full potential of yield in every region taking into account the agronomic, climatic and environmental conditions. Ducks are very popular around coastal areas. The focus shall be to replace local ducks with improved egg and meat type breeds. Programmes on other avian species like quails, guinea fowl and turkey shall be strengthened.
iii. Fodder Availability:
In area of fodder production, some strategies like establishment of fodder banks, fodder treatment, enrichment of straw with urea and molasses, use of chaff cutters, hay/silage demonstrations, production of fodder seed and emphasis on fodder production are needed to obtain optimum production in livestock sector. Preparation of database on various feeds and fodder resources, feeding practices and consumption patterns in various agro-climatic zones is necessary.
Practical use of biotechnological techniques such as recombinant microbes to digest straws, neutralize lignin and its by-products. Efforts should be made to increase area under fodder crops and agro-forestry by using uncultivated, barren and fallow lends. Feeds quality standards for compound feed shall be continuously adopted to help protect interest of livestock owners.
iv. Reduction of Surplus Cattle:
The issue of reduction of surplus cattle was dealt in the Second Five Year Plan but so far it not addressed adequately. It is noticed that the fodder and other resources of the country were grossly inadequate even for maintaining the existing cattle population. Therefore, government should recognize that culling and utilization of surplus animals is an established norm for animal production and improvement.
States should take a realistic view of the fodder resources available in defining the scope of bans on the slaughter of cattle. Government should support to voluntary organizations to take responsibility of unserviceable and unproductive cattle, where such animal can be maintained with minimum cost.
v. Cost-Effective Ways of Rearing the Calves:
The premature death of buffalo and cross-bred males is a loss of great potential – for meat production. The mortality rate in urban buffalo calves is reported to be 60-90% for various reasons and there are about 5.74 million buffalo calves that need to be saved from early death. If their survival is ensured and fattened it could be an assured source of raw material for high quality meat production. There is need to evolve and adopt cost-effective way of rearing of such calf.
vi. Rural-Based Abattoirs with Processing Facilities:
Establishment or rural abattoir linked with consumption centres at cities and town could be an alternative with many added advantages. Establishing rural-based abattoirs (RBA) with processing facilities in animal tracts would drastically reduce the need for transportation of live animals to urban areas for slaughter.
There should be at least one carcass utilization plant in each district so that dead and fall animals are processed and fanners are paid for hide and bone.
vii. Intellectual Property Rights:
Urgent steps are needed to protect the intellectual property rights of region specific livestock’s, which proved their production potential such as Vechchoor, Kasaragod cattle, Malabari goat, Black Beatle goat of Kerala.
viii. Adoption of Appropriate Technology:
Technology supported and demand driven livestock growth will be the future engine for growth. New commercially viable technologies of production should be adopted for the efficient use of the existing resources and to fulfill the local demands as well as for tapping the external markets of livestock products. There is need for transition from subsistent livestock farming to sustainable and financially viable livestock farming, which will generate wealth and self- employment through entrepreneurship.
ix. Adequate and Timely Financial Support:
Financing should be done against model projects that have demonstrated their economic viability. The venture capital fund should be created in the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (in collaboration with NABARD) for establishment of infrastructure by private entrepreneurs like veterinary hospitals, vaccine production units, feed plants, fodder seed production facilities, processing plants for western and indigenous dairy, meat and egg products, semen production units including bull mother farms and network for delivery of semen to the farmers.
Such provision will help the entrepreneur to avoid rushing to the bank for further financial help and make a long wait by which time the activity might suffer irreparable loss. Introduction of Dairy and Poultry Farmers Credit Card (Like Kisan Credit Card) would solve the problem of working capital.
x. Remunerative Prices:
Problems of livestock sector are compounded by non-remunerative prices of livestock products, an issue which has not received the attention of the government. Development of marketing network and remunerative prices support to the producers will be a great incentive for higher animal productivity both in quality and quantity.
Creation of a permanent institution in the line of commission on agricultural costs and prices (CACP) should be formed which will estimate the cost of production of various livestock products and suggest remunerative price so that farmers are not exploited.
xi. Livestock Extension Services:
Presently livestock extension is attached with agriculture extension. Livestock extension is primarily based on delivery of services and inputs. It needs to be treated differently from crop related extension activities because livestock are kept with multiple objectives ranging from income generation, food, and fuel fertilizer production to socio-cultural linkage, which makes change process much more difficult.
Panchayats, Cooperatives and NGOs should play a leading role in generating dedicated band of service providers at the farmer’s doorstep in their respective areas. There is a need for establishment of a fully operational Directorate of Extension in the Departmental and a National Institute of Livestock Extension (NILE) in the country.
xii. Gender Issue:
Involvement of women is more in livestock keeping, compared to crop production. Most training and TOT programmes are men oriented, so is the extension material and these do not suit women in view of different perceptions, priorities, other duties and higher illiteracy amongst them. For livestock extension to be effective, we need more sustained effort, greater interaction with farmers with participatory and systems approach and due consideration of socio-cultural aspects. Gender issue acquires much more importance in livestock development processes and inclusion of women in the extension team is necessary for faster impact.
xiii. Effective Coverage of Livestock Insurance Scheme:
Issue of financial loss during natural calamities and disaster will require attention and suitable programme need to be developed since such asset loss can drive the poor into destitution. Remunerative livestock production system will call for protection against the risks due to natural calamities, diseases, outbreaks, extreme market fluctuations, etc. The insurance coverage for such exigencies will be encouraged particularly for owners below the poverty line.
xiv. Effective Monitoring of Management of Dairy Co-Operative:
Though, the co-operative approach of dairy development has been successful in India, but due to incompetent management of dairy co-operatives facing various problems. Out of 168 milk unions, 105 milk unions were running in loss as on 2000. These loss making unions handled about 35% of the milk of the cooperative sector. Investment in the dairy sector has been reduced drastically in the 9th 5-year plan. Therefore, this issue should be addressed by effective monitoring and regulations.
xv. Specialized Veterinary Services:
In areas having highly productive and valuable animals, there is need for making available specialized veterinary services. As presently, the animal health care service is almost free, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the state to strengthen such services. There is a class of livestock owners who can afford to pay for the services, such owners shall be charged for the services provided. This will not only help the state to improve animal health services but also attract private investment. A research study conducted by Abuja Vinod et al (2003) in state of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Kerala shows farmers are ready to day for such services.
xvi. Import Duty:
Import duty on equipment, medicines, feed additives, etc. should be rationalized for promoting animal rearing by farmers.
xvii. Information System:
Database for livestock sector are not only poor but lack authenticity. There are large data gaps. These gaps would be identified and steps taken to generate and disseminate the required information for proper planning and programme implementation.
xviii. Effective Breeding Strategy:
The current yield levels for crossbred, indigenous cows and buffaloes of 1800, 900 and 1200 kg per year respectively could safely be increased to the targeted levels through of selection and progeny testing of bulls for milk and providing breeding and other input services at the farmers, door. The newer breeding and reproductive technologies like open nucleus breeding system (ONBS) and embryo transfer (ET) shall be an integrated part of breed improvement. Efforts are required to increase artificial insemination (AI) rate in certain state.
Quality Standards of Livestock Products:
With a view to compete in international market in respect of quality standards, methods of collection, storage, transport and processing of milk have to be modernized to ensure quality and hygiene synchronizing with international standards. Suitable legislation/administrative mechanism would be brought in place to ensure that milk is handled in most scientific conditions and reaches the customer without any contamination or any other health hazard agent.
Registration of the all slaughterhouses in the city/town is must for clean meat production it should be located keeping in view environmental angle and logistic support. Machinery is required to be put in place to provide support for creation of necessary infrastructure for rural slaughter houses, transport arrangements, cold storage and marking.
Large modern abattoirs shall be encouraged for production of quality meat. Regulatory supervision of export oriented slaughter is necessary in order to synchronize with global health standards to augment export. Quality processing, attractive packaging, cold chain and suitable marketing network should be made an integral part of the production and processing.
In view of the large size of the country, it may not be possible to control and eradicate livestock diseases from the entire county at one point of time and creation of disease free zone with respect to a specific disease is a recognized method of solving this problem in a phased manner.
To start with, foot and mouth disease-free zones are sought to be created in areas with export potential. The zone concept should be focused to the areas where there is export potential for meat, milk, skin/hide and other livestock products or the area from where the disease could be easily controlled and animals and animal products could be exported.
There is need for a position of controller veterinary vaccines, biological and drugs, who would be responsible for the harmonization of veterinary vaccines, drugs and diagnostic reagents. Introducing quality management system shall strengthen facilities for specific and general disease diagnosis.
An inventory of traditional Indian medicinal practice for animal health shall be prepared and used. Other alternate systems of medicine adopted in the country shall be used for ailments against which they are effective. Special emphasis will be laid for control of zoonotic to safeguard human health and food safety.
Effective Quarantine Mechanism:
Creation of animal quarantine certification and enforcement authority, Quarantine facilities shall be further strengthened and strict zoo sanitary and quarantine procedures followed to prevent ingress of exotic diseases. The system of export health certification shall be synchronized with global standards to promote export.
With a view to control inter-state transmission of diseases, the movement of livestock from one state to another shall be regulated through central legislative backup. Mechanism for emergency preparedness against emerging and exotic diseases shall be put in place. A system of reliable and prompt disease reporting, forecasting and creation of database for all important diseases will be put in place.
Veterinary Educational System and Human Resources:
Since 1994, Veterinary Council of India came into force for regulation of veterinary education in India. But so far only five states have taken initiatives for establishment of separate animal science and veterinary universities. Still in most of the states, veterinary education system is under the state agriculture universities and has very poor infrastructures facilities and faculties due to negligence of agriculture universities.
Therefore, other states should be take responsibility to separate out veterinary education as a separate entity with strong financial support for creation of qualitative and quantitative human resources.
The present scenario has resulted into new priorities and calls for meaningful role of extension education to exploit the opportunities for desired gains.
The present article tried to analyze the strengths, constraints, opportunities and future strategies of livestock sector in India. The present scenario has resulted into new priorities and calls for the meaningful role of veterinary extension to exploit the opportunities for desired gains. The strong animal/veterinary research and extension base coupled with the hard work of the livestock owners and appropriate policy efforts will definitely play a vital role for ushering white revolution and achieving the red revolution in India.
Recommendations on Animal Husbandry and Dairy Sectors:
1. Improvement of the livestock breeding is important but also increased remuneration to the farmers.
2. Charges for the services like artificial insemination can also be levied for other services so that the quality of services can be improved and the fund so received can again be ploughed back for the development of animal husbandry.
3. Disease control is of immense importance from the farmers’ point of view. Therefore, a massive programme is required to eradicate some of the diseases like foot and mouth disease.
4. There is needed to form a separate body for carrying out research in the field of animal husbandry. This body may be called the Indian Council of Veterinary Research so that better synergies can be developed between the farmers and various research institutions.
5. Promotion of milk and milk products through the mid-day meal programme.
6. The Government of India may take up with the state governments the issue of fodder development on wastelands and degraded lands so as to over-come the deficit in fodder supply.
7. Development of poultry and small ruminants like sheep, goats are very important from the point of view of small and marginal farmers and specially in the hilly and backward areas of the country.
8. Livestock policies must reflect the regional cattle wealth of the country and ensure preservation of the indigenous breeds of livestock.
For Indian livestock sector to emerge successful in the fast changing global scenario and an unqualified need to produce more food in term of quality, quantity and availability for the booming domestic population, there is a need to introspect and project itself with renewed vigour at every possible opportunity that globalization shall provide. For this, areas should be identified for immediate attention.
These includes biotechnology, conservation, effective management, use of bio-resources, management of IPR related tasks, post-harvest management of the product, safe delivery in the consumer market, more investment in the indigenous product, etc. In addition, thrust in the direction of building infrastructure for promoting livestock health and production is needed in the form of development of veterinary hospitals in every village, polyclinic with facility of modern laboratories at least at district level and appointment of subject specialist at these laboratories and polyclinics.
Funds provided by Indian Government are very less compared to the share of agriculture in the GDP compared to other developed countries. If conclusive results with respect to sustaining our country economics by development of animal husbandry and dairying are to be achieved, it is possible only by problem oriented research and release of funds for such practical based research.
In order to forage balance in trade, WTO agreements in relevant cases are expected to create/enhance opportunities for agribusiness, particularly in improved packages/methods of farming that require regulated use of chemicals inputs, post-harvest processing and value addition and packaging. Overall, the impact of further challenges and opportunities with increased scope of converting challenges into opportunities.
Capital flow is essential prerequisite for sustained/enhanced entrepreneurship, partnerships and synergies wherein the former is bound to increase with the application of legislative and regulatory provisions as per the various WTO agreements. The globalization process has thrown open opportunities for active contribution of scientist. The globalization process will induce the private sector to go in for research on its own.
In future, public- private partnership for carrying out research in the areas of mutual continence is, therefore, relevant and important. The linkage between the public research and the private industrial sectors may help in strengthening production/export of the export-oriented products.
Research can be positively reorganized based on the feedback of the exporters. Also requisite and logical decision has to be taken for any offer of investment in public sector particularly the multinationals while taking due note of emerging bio-concerns of the developing countries, such as bio-survey, bio-piracy, bio-partnership, bio-safety, etc.