In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Meaning of Tillage 2. Objectives of Tillage 3. Classification 4. Types.
Meaning of Tillage:
Crop production requires a number of operations like seed bed preparation, seeding, fertilizing, spraying, dusting, irrigation, harvesting and threshing. The first operation in production of crop is tillage. It requires higher amount of labour. It is a mechanical manipulation of soil to provide favourable condition for crop production.
Soil tillage consists of breaking the compact surface of earth to a certain depth and to loosen the soil mass, so as to enable the roots of the crops to penetrate and spread into the soil. Tillage may be called the practice of modifying the state of soil to provide favourable conditions for plant growth. Tillage operation is most labour consuming and difficult operation, compared to all subsequent operation in the field.
Objectives of Tillage:
1. To obtain deep seed bed, suitable for different type of crops.
2. To add more humus and fertility to soil by covering the vegetation.
3. To destroy and prevent weeds.
4. To aerate the soil for proper growth of crops.
5. To increase water absorbing capacity of the soil.
6. To destroy the insects, pests and their breeding places and
7. To reduce the soil erosion.
Classification of Tillage:
Tillage is divided into two classes:
1. Primary Tillage
2. Secondary Tillage
1. Primary Tillage:
It constitutes the initial major soil working operation. It is normally designed to reduce soil strength, cover plant materials, and rearrange aggregates. The operations performed to open up any cultivable land with a view to prepare a seed bed for growing crops is known as primary tillage.
Implements may be tractor drawn or animal drawn implements. Animal drawn implements mostly include indigenous plough and mouldboard plough. Tractor drawn implements include mouldboard plough, disc plough, subsoil plough, chisel plough and other similar implements.
2. Secondary Tillage:
Tillage operations following primary tillage which are performed to create proper soil tilth for seeding and planting are secondary tillage.
These are lighter and finer operations, performed on the soil after primary tillage operations. Secondary tillage consists of conditioning the soil to meet the different tillage objectives of the farm. The implements used for secondary tillage operations are called secondary tillage implements. They include different types of harrow, cultivators, levelers, clod crushers and similar implements.
These operations are generally done on the surface soil of the farm. Secondary tillage operations do not cause much soil inversion and shifting of soil from one place to other. These operations consume less power per unit area compared to primary tillage operations.
The main objectives of secondary tillage operations are:
(a) To pulverise the soil of the seed beds in the field.
(b) To destroy grasses and weeds in the field.
(c) To cut crop residues and mix them with top soil of the field and
(d) To break the big clods and to make the field surface uniform and levelled.
Secondary tillage implements may be tractor drawn or bullock drawn implements. Bullock drawn implements include harrows, cultivators, hoes etc.
Types of Tillage:
There are various types of tillage:
1. Minimum Tillage:
It is the minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements for crop production.
2. Strip Tillage:
It is a tillage system in which only isolated bands of soil are tilled.
3. Rotary Tillage:
It is the tillage operations employing rotary action to cut, break and mix the soil.
4. Mulch Tillage:
It is the preparation of soil in such a way that plant residues or other mulching materials are specially left on or near the surface.
5. Combined Tillage:
Operations simultaneously utilizing two or more different types of tillage tools or implements to simplify, control or reduce the number of operations over a field are called combined tillage. Tillage is performed by tool, implements or machine.
It is an individual working element such as disc or shovel.
It is equipment, generally having no driven moving parts, such as harrow or having only simple mechanism such as plough.
It is a combination of rigid or resistant bodies having definite motions and capable of performing useful work.